Scalable economic extracellular synthesis of CdS nanostructured particles by a non-pathogenic thermophile
- 416 Downloads
We report microbially facilitated synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanostructured particles (NP) using anaerobic, metal-reducing Thermoanaerobacter sp. The extracellular CdS crystallites were <10 nm in size with yields of ~3 g/L of growth medium/month with demonstrated reproducibility and scalability up to 24 L. During synthesis, Thermoanaerobacter cultures reduced thiosulfate and sulfite salts to H2S, which reacted with Cd2+ cations to produce thermodynamically favored NP in a single step at 65 °C with catalytic nucleation on the cell surfaces. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of dry CdS NP revealed an exciton-dominated PL peak at 440 nm, having a narrow full width at half maximum of 10 nm. A PL spectrum of CdS NP produced by dissimilatory sulfur reducing bacteria was dominated by features associated with radiative exciton relaxation at the surface. High reproducibility of CdS NP PL features important for scale-up conditions was confirmed from test tubes to 24 L batches at a small fraction of the manufacturing cost associated with conventional inorganic NP production processes.
KeywordsCdS nanostructured particles Nano-biotechnology Thermoanaerobacter Fermentation Photoluminescence Scalable synthesis
This research was supported by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency (NT08845) and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of ORNL (L05512). Part of this research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is sponsored at the ORNL Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. DOE. The ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. The authors also appreciate James G. Elkins for constructive comments, Tae Hwan Kim for peak analysis, and Sue Carroll for cell counting.
- 17.Mandal A, Saha J. De G (2011) Stable CdS QDs with intense broadband photoluminescence and high quantum yield. Opt Mater 34:6-11Google Scholar
- 19.Miller LD, Mosher JJ, Venkateswaran A, Yang ZK, Palumbo AV, Phelps TJ, Podar M, Schadt CW, Keller M (2010) Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments. BMC Microbiol 10:149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Murasagi A, Nakagawa CW, Hayashi Y (1984) Formation of cadmium-binding peptide allomorphs in fission yeast. J Biochem (Tokyo) 96:1375–1379Google Scholar
- 33.Wagman DD, Evans WH, Parker VB, Schumm RH, Halow I, Bailey SM, Churney KL, Nuttall RL (1982) J Phy Che Ref Data 11Google Scholar
- 39.Zhang C, Vali H, Romanek CS, Phelps TJ, Liu SV (1998) Formation of single-domain magnetite by a thermophilic bacterium. Am Miner 83:1409–1418Google Scholar