Wine flavor and aroma

Review

Abstract

The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of “terroir” (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

Keywords

Wine aroma and flavor Primary and secondary yeast metabolism Malolactic fermentation 

References

  1. 1.
    Alexandre H, Ansanay-Galeote V, Dequin S, Blondin B (2001) Global gene expression during short-term ethanol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett 498:98–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Almy J, De Revel G (2008) Approaches to wine aroma: C1 transfer during the reaction between diacetyl and cysteine. Ann NY Acad Sci 1126:216–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Antonelli A, Castellari L, Zambonelli C, Carnacini A (1999) Yeast influence on volatile composition of wines. J Agric Food Chem 47:1139–1144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ardö Y (2006) Flavour formation by amino acid catabolism. Biotechnol Advances 24:238–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arevalo Villena M, Ubeda J, Cordero Otero RR, Briones A (2005) Optimization of a rapid method for studying the cellular location of β-glucosidase activity in wine yeasts. J Appl Microbiol 99:558–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barbe J-C, Pineau B, Silva Ferreira A (2008) Instrumental and sensory approaches for the characterization of compounds responsible for wine aroma. Chem Biodiv 5:1170–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bardi L, Cocito C, Marzona M (1999) Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell fatty acid composition and release during fermentation without aeration and in absence of exogenous lipids. Int J Food Microbiol 47:133–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bartowsky E, Henschke P (2004) The ‘buttery’ attribute of wine—diacetyl—desirability, spoilage and beyond. Int J Food Microbiol 96:235–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bauer FF, Pretorius IS (2000) Yeast stress response and fermentation efficiency: how to survive the making of wine. S Afr J Enol Vitic 21:27–51Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ben-Yosef T, Eden A, Benvenisty N (1998) Characterization of murine BCAT genes: Bcat1, a c-Myc target, and its homolog, Bcat2. Mamm Genome 9:595–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bloem A, Bertrand A, Lonvaud-Funel A, de Revel G (2007) Vanillin production from simple phenols by wine-associated lactic acid bacteria. Lett Appl Microbiol 44:62–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bloem A, Lonvaud-Funel A, de Revel G (2008) Hydrolysis of glycosidically bound flavour compounds from oak wood by Oenococcus oeni. Food Microbiol 25:99–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boido E, Lloret A, Medina K, Carrau F, Dellacassa E (2002) Effect of β-glycosidase activity of Oenococcus oeni on the glycosylated flavor precursors of Tannat wine during malolactic fermentation. J Agric Food Chem 50:2344–2349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boido E, Medina K, Farina L, Carrau F, Versini G, Dellacassa E (2009) The effect of bacterial strain and aging on the secondary volatile metabolites produced during malolactic fermentation of Tannat red wine. J Agric Food Chem 57:6271–6278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bonino M, Schellino R, Rizzi C, Aigotti R, Delfini C, Baiocchi C (2003) Aroma compounds of an Italian wine (Ruche) by HS–SPME analysis coupled with GC–ITMS. Food Chem 80:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Butzke C, Park SK (2011) Impact of fermentation rate changes on potential hydrogen sulfide concentrations in wine. J Microbiol Biotech 21:519–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cadahía E, Fernandez de Simón B, Sanz M, Poveda P, Colio J (2009) Chemical and chromatic characteristics of Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from DO Navarra aged in Spanish and French oak barrels. Food Chem 115:639–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Campo E, Cacho J, Ferreira V (2006) Multidimensional chromatographic approach applied to the identification of novel aroma compounds in wine: identification of ethyl cyclohexanoate, ethyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate. J Chromatogr A 1137:223–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Campo E, Ferreira V, Lopez R, Escudero A, Cacho J (2006) Identification of three novel compounds in wine by means of a laboratory-constructed multidimensional gas chromatographic system. J Chromatogr A 1122:202–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carrau F, Medina K, Boido E, Farina L, Gaggero C, Dellacassa E, Versini G, Henschke P (2005) De novo synthesis of monoterpenes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts. FEMS Microbiol Lett 243:107–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carrau F, Medina K, Farina L, Boido E, Henschke P, Dellacassa E (2008) Production of fermentation aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts: effects of yeast assimilable nitrogen on two model strains. FEMS Yeast Res 8:1196–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chassagne D, Guilloux-Benatier M, Alexandre H, Voilley A (2005) Sorption of wine volatile phenols by yeast lees. Food Chem 91:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen EC-H (1977) The relative contribution of Ehrlich and biosynthetic pathways to the formation of fusel alcohols. J Am Soc Brew Chem 36:39–43Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ciani M, Comitini F, Mannazzu I, Domizio P (2010) Controlled mixed culture fermentation: a new perspective on the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking. FEMS Yeast Res 10:123–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cocito C, Gaetano G, Delfini C (1995) Rapid extraction of aroma compounds in must and wine by means of ultrasound. Food Chem 52:311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Comuzzo P, Tat L, Tonizzo A, Battistutta F (2006) Yeast derivatives (extracts and autolysates) in winemaking: release of volatile compounds and effects on wine aroma volatility. Food Chem 99:217–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Conway ME, Hutson SM (2000) Mammalian branched-chain aminotransferases. Methods Enzymol 324:355–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Davoodi J, Drown PM, Bledsoe RK, Wallin R, Reinhart GD, Hutson SM (1998) Overexpression and characterization of the human mitochondrial and cytosolic branched-chain aminotransferases. J Biol Chem 273:4982–4989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    de Orduña RM (2010) Climate change associated effects on grape and wine quality and production. Food Res Int 43:1844–1855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    de Revel G, Martin N, Pripis-Nicolau L, Lonvaud-Funel A, Bertrand A (1999) Contribution to the knowledge of malolactic fermentation influence on wine aroma. J Agric Food Chem 47:4003–4008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Delfini C, Cocito C, Bonino M, Schellino R, Gaia P, Baiocchi C (2001) Definitive evidence for the actual contribution of yeast in the transformation of neutral precursors of grape aromas. J Agric Food Chem 49:5397–5408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Diaz-Maroto M, Schneider R, Baumes R (2005) Formation pathways of ethyl esters of branched short-chain fatty acids during wine aging. J Agric Food Chem 53:3503–3509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dickinson JR, Lanterman M, Danner D, Pearson B, Sanz P, Harrison SJ, Hewlins MJ (1997) A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the metabolism of leucine to isoamyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 272:26871–26878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dickinson JR, Norte V (1993) A study of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and isolation of mutations affecting the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett 326:29–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dickinson JR, Salgado L, Hewlins MJ (2003) The catabolism of amino acids to long chain and complex alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 278:8028–8034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Drewnowski A, Ahlstrom Henderson S, Barratt-Fornell A (2001) Genetic taste markers and food preferences. Drug Metab Disp 29:535–538Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dupin IVS, McKinnon BM, Ryan C, Boulay M, Markides AJ, Jones GP, Williams PJ, Waters EJ (2000) Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannoproteins that protect wine from protein haze: their release during fermentation and lees contact and a proposal for their mechanism of action. J Agric Food Chem 48:3098–3105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eden A, Simchen G, Benvenisty N (1996) Two yeast homologs of ECA39, a target for c-Myc regulation, code for cytosolic and mitochondrial branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases. J Biol Chem 271:20242–20245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eden A, Van Nedervelde L, Drukker M, Benvenisty N, Debourg A (2001) Involvement of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases in the production of fusel alcohols during fermentation in yeast. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 55:296–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ehrlich F (1904) Uber das naturliche Isomere des Leucins. Ber Dtsch Chem Ges 37:1809–1840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Estevez P, Gil M, Falque E (2004) Effects of seven yeast strains on the volatile composition of Palomino wines. Int J Food Sci Technol 39:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fenoll J, Manso A, Hellin P, Ruiz L, Flores P (2009) Changes in the aromatic composition of the Vitis vinifera grape Muscat Hamburg during ripening. Food Chem 114:420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fernandez-Gonzalez M, Ubeda J, Cordero Otero RR, Thanvantri Gururajan V, Briones A (2005) Engineering of an oenological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with pectinolytic activity and its effect on wine. Int J Food Microbiol 102:173–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ferreira V, Jarauta I, Cacho J (2006) Physicochemical model to interpret the kinetics of aroma extraction during wine aging in wood. Model limitations suggest the necessary existence of biochemical processes. J Agric Food Chem 54:3047–3054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Flamini R (2005) Some advances in the knowledge of grape, wine and distillates chemistry as achieved by mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom 40:705–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fleet G (2003) Yeast interactions and wine flavour. Int J Food Microbiol 86:11–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fleet G (2008) Wine yeasts for the future. FEMS Yeast Res 8:979–995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Garde-Cerdan T, Ancin-Azpilicueta C (2008) Effect of the addition of different quantities of amino acids to nitrogen-deficient must on the formation of esters, alcohols, and acids during wine alcoholic fermentation. LWT 41:501–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Genovese A, Piombino P, Gambuti G, Moio L (2009) Simulation of retronasal aroma of white and red wine in a model mouth system. Investigating the influence of saliva on volatile compound concentrations. Food Chem 114:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gil J, Manzanares P, Genoves S, Valles S, Gonzalez-Candelas L (2005) Over-production of the major exoglucanase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to an increase in the aroma of wine. Int J Food Microbiol 103:57–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goldner MC, Zamora M, Di Leo Lira P, Gianninoto H, Bandoni A (2009) Effect of ethanol level in the perception of aroma attributes and the detection of volatile compounds in red wine. J Sens Stud 24:243–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gonzalez S, Gallo L, Climent M, Barrio E, Querol A (2007) Enological characterization of natural hybrids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. Int J Food Microbiol 116:11–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Grimaldi A, Bartowsky E, Jiranek V (2005) A survey of glycosidase activities of commercial wine strains of Oenococcus oeni. Int J Food Microbiol 105:233–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grosch W (2001) Evaluation of the key odorants of foods by dilution experiments, aroma models and omission. Chem Senses 26:533–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hadley K, Orlandi R, Fong K (2004) Basic anatomy and physiology of olfaction and taste. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 37:1115–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hallsworth JE (1998) Ethanol-induced water stress in yeast. J Ferment Bioeng 85:125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Halpern B (1982) Environmental factors affecting chemoreceptors: an overview. Environ Health Perspec 44:101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hazelwood L, Daran JM, Van Maris AJ, Pronk JT, Dickinson JA (2008) The Ehrlich pathway for fusel alcohol production: a century of research on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:2259–2266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hernandez-Orte P, Cacho J, Ferreira V (2002) Relationship between varietal amino acid profile of grapes and wine aromatic composition. Experiments with model solutions and chemometric study. J Agric Food Chem 50:2891–2899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hernandez-Orte P, Cersosimo M, Loscos N, Cacho J, Garcia-Moruno E, Ferreira V (2008) The development of varietal aroma from non-floral grapes by yeasts of different genera. Food Chem 107:1064–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hernandez-Orte P, Ibarz M, Cacho J, Ferreira V (2005) Effect of the addition of ammonium and amino acids to musts of Airen variety on aromatic composition and sensory properties of the obtained wine. Food Chem 89:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hernandez-Orte P, Ibarz M, Cacho J, Ferreira V (2006) Addition of amino acids to grape juice of the Merlot variety: effect on amino acid uptake and aroma generation during alcoholic fermentation. Food Chem 98:300–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hernandez L, Espinosa J, Fernandez-Gonzalez M, Briones A (2003) β-Glucosidase activity in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain. Int J Food Microbiol 80:171–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hernanz D, Gallo V, Recamales A, Melendez-Martinez A, Gonzalez-Miret M, Heredia F (2009) Effect of storage on the phenolic content, volatile composition and colour of white wines from the varieties Zalema and Colombard. Food Chem 113:530–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Iraqui I, Vissers S, Andrè B, Urrestarazu A (1999) Transcriptional induction by aromatic amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 19:3360–3371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Iriti M, Faoro F (2006) Grape phytochemicals: a bouquet of old and new nutraceuticals for human health. Med Hypoth 67:833–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jansen M, Veurink JH, Euverink GJ, Dijkhuizen L (2003) Growth of the salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in microtiter plates: effects of NaCl, pH and temperature on growth and fusel alcohol production from branched-chain amino acids. FEMS Yeast Res 3:313–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jarauta I, Cacho J, Ferreira V (2005) Concurrent phenomena contributing to the formation of the aroma of wine during aging in oak wood: an analytical study. J Agric Food Chem 53:4166–4177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jimenez-Marti E, Aranda A, Mendes-Ferreira A, Mendes-Faia A, Li del Olmo M (2007) The nature of the nitrogen source added to nitrogen depleted vinifications conducted by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in synthetic must affects gene expression and the levels of several volatile compounds. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 92:61–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jimenez J, Benitez T (1987) Adaptation of yeast cell membranes to ethanol. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:1196–1198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jolly N, Augustyn O, Pretorius IS (2003) The effect of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on fermentation and wine quality. S Afr J Eno Vitic 24:55–62Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jolly N, Augustyn O, Pretorius IS (2006) The role and use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine production. S Afr J Eno Vitic 27:15–39Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jones PR, Gawel R, Francis I, Waters EJ (2008) The influence of interactions between major white wine components on the aroma, flavour and texture of model white wine. Food Qual Prefer 19:596–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kispal G, Steiner H, Court DA, Rolinski B, Lill R (1996) Mitochondrial and cytosolic branched-chain amino acid transaminases from yeast, homologs of the myc oncogene-regulated Eca39 protein. J Biol Chem 271:24458–24464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kotseridis Y, Baumes R (2000) Identification of impact odorants in Bordeaux red grape juice, in the commercial yeast used for its fermentation, and in the produced wine. J Agric Food Chem 48:400–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lachenmeier D, Sohnius E-M (2008) The role of acetaldehyde outside ethanol metabolism in the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages: evidence from a large chemical survey. Food Chem Tox 46:2903–2911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lambrechts MG, Pretorius IS (2000) Yeast and its importance to wine aroma. S Afr J Enol Vitic 21:97–129Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lambropoulus I, Roussis I (2007) Inhibition of the decrease of volatile esters and terpenes during storage of a white wine and a model wine medium by caffeic acid and gallic acid. Food Res Int 40:176–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Le Berre E, Atanasova B, Langlois D, Etievant P, Thomas-Danguin T (2007) Impact of ethanol on the perception of wine odorant mixtures. Food Qual Prefer 18:901–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lee S-J, Rathbone D, Asimont S, Adden R, Ebeler S (2004) Dynamic changes in ester formation during Chardonnay juice fermentations with different yeast inoculation and initial Brix conditions. Am J Enol Vitic 55:346–354Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Leffingwell J, Leffingwell D (1991) GRAS flavor chemicals—detection thresholds. Perf Flav 16:2–19Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lilly M, Bauer FF, Styger G, Lambrechts MG, Pretorius IS (2006) The effect of increased branched-chain amino acid transaminase activity in yeast on the production of higher alcohols and on the flavour profiles of wine and distillates. FEMS Yeast Res 6:726–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lilly M, Lambrechts MG, Pretorius IS (2000) Effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase activity on flavor profiles of wine and distillates. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:744–753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Linderholm AL, Dietzel K, Hirst M, Bisson LF (2010) Identification of MET10–932 and characterization as an allele reducing hydrogen sulfide formation in wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7699–7707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Linderholm AL, Findleton CL, Kumar G, Hong Y, Bisson LF (2008) Identification of genes affecting hydrogen sulfide formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:1418–1427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Liu S-Q (2002) Malolactic fermentation in wine—beyond deacidification. J Appl Microbiol 92:589–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Liu S-Q, Pilone G (2000) An overview of formation and roles of acetaldehyde in winemaking with emphasis on microbiological implications. Int J Food Sci Technol 35:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lopandic K, Gangl H, Wallner E, Tscheik G, Leitner G, Querol A, Borth N, Breitenbach M, Prillinger H, Tiefenbrunner W (2007) Genetically different wine yeasts isolated from Austrian vine-growing regions influence wine aroma differently and contain putative hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. FEMS Yeast Res 7:953–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Loscos N, Hernandez-Orte P, Cacho J, Ferreira V (2007) Release and formation of varietal aroma compounds during alcoholic fermentation from nonfloral grape odorless flavor precursors fractions. J Agric Food Chem 55:6674–6684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lubbers S, Verret C, Voilley A (2001) The effect of glycerol on the perceived aroma of a model wine and a white wine. Lebensm Wiss Technol 34:262–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Malherbe D, du Toit M, Cordero Otero RR, Van Rensburg P, Pretorius IS (2003) Expression of the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its potential applications in wine production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 61:502–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mallouchos A, Komaitis M, Koutinas A, Kanellaki M (2002) Investigation of volatiles evolution during the alcoholic fermentation of grape must using free and immobilized cells with the help of solid phase microextraction (SPME) headspace sampling. J Agric Food Chem 50:3840–3848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mamede M, Cardello H, Pastore G (2005) Evaluation of an aroma similar to that of sparkling wine: sensory and gas chromatography analyses of fermented grape musts. Food Chem 89:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Marchand S, de Revel G, Bertrand A (2000) Approaches to wine aroma: release of aroma compounds from reactions between cysteine and carbonyl compounds in wine. J Agric Food Chem 48:4890–4895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Martinez-Rodriguez A, Carrascosa A, Martin-Alvarez P, Moreno-Arribas V, Polo M (2002) Influence of the yeast strain on the changes of the amino acids, peptides and proteins during sparkling wine production by the traditional method. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 29:314–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Martınez-Rodrıguez AJ, Polo M (2000) Characterization of the nitrogen compounds released during yeast autolysis in a model wine system. J Agric Food Chem 48:1081–1085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Martınez-Rodrıguez AJ, Polo M, Carrascosa AV (2001) Structural and ultrastructural changes in yeast cells during autolysis in a model wine system and in sparkling wines. Int J Food Microbiol 71:45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Marullo P, Bely M, Masneuf-Pomarede I, Pons M, Aigle M, Dubourdieu D (2006) Breeding strategies for combining fermentative qualities and reducing off-flavor production in a wine yeast model. FEMS Yeast Res 6:268–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Marullo P, Mansour C, Dufour M, Albertin W, Sicard D, Bely M, Dubourdieu D (2009) Genetic improvement of thermo-tolerance in wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by a backcross approach. FEMS Yeast Res 9:1148–1160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mateo J, Gentilini N, Huerta T, Jimenez M, Di Stefano R (1997) Fractionation of glycoside precursors of aroma in grapes and wine. J Chromatogr A 778:219–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mateo J, Jimenez M (2000) Monoterpenes in grape juice and wines. J Chromatogr A 881:557–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mazauric J-P, Salmon J-P (2005) Interactions between yeast lees and wine polyphenols during simulation of wine aging: I. Analysis of remnant polyphenolic compounds in the resulting wines. J Agric Food Chem 53:5647–5653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mendes-Ferreira A, Barbosa C, Jimenez-Marti E, del Olmo M, Mendes Faia A (2010) The wine yeast strain-dependent expression of genes implicated in sulfide production in response to nitrogen availability. J Microbiol Biotech 20:1314–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mendes Ferreirra A, Climaco M, Mendes Faia A (2001) The role of non-Saccharomyces species in releasing glycosidic bound fraction of grape aroma components—a preliminary study. J Appl Microbiol 91:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mestres M, Busto O, Guasch J (2000) Analysis of organic sulfur compounds in wine aroma. J Chromatogr A 881:569–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mestres M, Marti M, Busto O, Guasch J (2000) Analysis of low-volatility organic sulphur compounds in wines by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 881:583–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Molina A, Swiegers J, Varela C, Pretorius IS, Agosin E (2007) Influence of wine fermentation temperature on the synthesis of yeast-derived volatile aroma compounds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 77:675–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Moreno-Arribas M, Polo M (2005) Winemaking biochemistry and microbiology: current knowledge and future trends. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 45:265–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mtshali P, Divol B, Van Rensburg P, Du Toit M (2010) Genetic screening of wine-related enzymes in Lactobacillus species isolated from South African wines. J Appl Microbiol 108:1389–1397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Nieuwoudt H, Prior BA, Pretorius IS, Bauer FF (2002) Glycerol in South African table wines: an assessment of its relationship to wine quality. S Afr J Enol Vitic 23:22–30Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nykanin L (1986) Formation and occurrence of flavor compounds in wine and distilled alcoholic beverages. Am J Enol Vitic 37:84–96Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Obreque-Slìer E, Peña-Neira A, Lopez-Solis R (2010) Enhancement of both salivary protein-enological tannin interactions and astringency perception by ethanol. J Agric Food Chem 58:3729–3735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Österbauer R, Matthews P, Jenkinson M, Beckmann C, Hansen P, Calvert G (2005) Color of scents: chromatic stimuli modulate odor responses in the human brain. J Neurophysiol 93:3434–3441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Park Y, Horton Shaffer C, Bennett G (2009) Microbial formation of esters. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:13–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Perestrelo R, Fernandes A, Albuquerque F, Marques J, Camara J (2006) Analytical characterization of the aroma of Tinta Negra Mole red wine: identification of the main odorants compounds. Anal Chim Acta 563:154–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Perez-Gonzalez J, Gonzalez R, Querol A, Sendra J, Ramon D (1993) Construction of a recombinant wine yeast strain expressing β-(1,4)-endoglucanase and its use in microvinification processes. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:2801–2806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Perez-Seradilla J, Luque de Castro M (2008) Role of lees in wine production: a review. Food Chem 111:447–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Perpete P, Duthoit O, De Maeyer S, Imray L, Lawton A, Stavropoulus K, Gitonga V, Hewlins MJ, Dickinson JA (2006) Methionine catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res 6:48–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Plata C, Millan C, Mauricio J, Ortega J (2003) Formation of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate by various species of wine yeasts. Food Microbiol 20:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Plutowska B, Wardencki W (2007) Aromagrams – aromatic profiles in the appreciation of food quality. Food Chem 101:845–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Polaskova P, Herszage J, Ebeler S (2008) Wine flavor: chemistry in a glass. Chem Soc Rev 37:2478–2489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Prohl C, Kispal G, Lill R (2000) Branched-chain-amino-acid transaminases of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods Enzymol 324:365–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Pueyo E, Martınez-Rodrıguez AJ, Polo M, Santa-Maria G, Bartolome B (2000) Release of lipids during yeast autolysis in a model wine system. J Agric Food Chem 48:116–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Quilter M, Hurley J, Lynch F, Murphy M (2003) The production of isoamyl acetate from amyl alcohol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Inst Brew 109:34–40Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Radoi F, Kishida M, Kawasaki H (2005) Characteristics of wines made Saccharomyces mutants which produce a polygalacturonase under wine-making conditions. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69:2224–2226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Regodon Mateos J, Perez-Nevado F, Ramirez Fernandez M (2006) Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain on the major volatile compounds of wine. Enzyme Microb Technol 40:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ribéreau-Gayon J, Glories Y, Maujean A, Dubourdieu D (1998) Handbook of enology. The microbiology of wine and vinifications, vol II, 1st edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Rojas V, Gil J, Pinaga F, Manzanares P (2003) Acetate ester formation in wine by mixed cultures in laboratory fermentations. Int J Food Microbiol 86:181–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Romano P, Soli M, Suzzi G, Grazia L, Zambonelli C (1985) Improvement of a wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain by a breeding program. Appl Environ Microbiol 50:1064–1067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Romano P, Suzzi G (1996) Origin and production of acetoin during wine yeast fermentation. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:309–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ryan D, Prenzler P, Saliba A, Scollary G (2008) The significance of low impact odorants in global odour perception. Trends Food Sci Technol 19:383–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Saerens S, Delvaux F, Verstrepen K, Van Dijck P, Thevelein J, Delvaux F (2008) Parameters affecting ethyl ester production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:454–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Sanchez Paloma E, Diaz-Maroto M, Gonzalez Vinas M, Soriano-Perez A, Perez-Coello M (2007) Aroma profile of wines from Albillo and Muscat grape varieties at different stages of ripening. Food Control 18:398–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Selli S, Canbas A, Cabaroglu T, Erten H, Lepoutre J-P, Gunata Z (2006) Effect of skin contact on the free and bound aroma compounds of the white wine of Vitis vinifera L. cv Narince. Food Control 17:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Siebert T, Wood C, Elsey G, Pollnitz A (2008) Determination of Rotundone, the pepper aroma impact compound, in grapes and wine. J Agric Food Chem 56:3745–3748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sipiczki M (2008) Interspecies hybridization and recombination in Saccharomyces wine yeasts. FEMS Yeast Res 8:996–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Swiegers J, Kievit R, Siebert T, Lattey K, Bramley B, Francis I, King E, Pretorius IS (2009) The influence of yeast on the aroma of Sauvignon Blanc wine. Food Microbiol 26:204–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Swiegers J, Pretorius IS (2007) Modulation of volatile sulfur compounds by wine yeast. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:954–960Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Taylor R, Jenkins W (1966) Leucine aminotransferase: II. Purification and characterization. J Biol Chem 241:4396–4405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ter Schure EG, Flikweert MT, Van Dijken JP, Pronk JT, Verrips CT (1998) Pyruvate decarboxylase catalyzes decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids but is not essential for fusel alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1303–1307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ugliano M, Genovese A, Moio L (2003) Hydrolysis of wine aroma precursors during malolactic fermentation with four commercial starter cultures of Oenococcus oeni. J Agric Food Chem 51:5073–5078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Verstrepen K, van Laere S, Vanderhaegen B, Derdelinckx G, Dufour J-P, Pretorius IS, Winderickx J, Thevelein J, Delvaux F (2003) Expression levels of the yeast alcohol acetyltransferase genes ATF1, Lg-ATF1, and ATF2 control the formation of a broad range of volatile esters. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:5228–5237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Viana F, Gil J, Genoves S, Valles S, Manzanares P (2008) Rational selection of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts for mixed starters based on ester formation and enological traits. Food Microbiol 25:778–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Vilanova M, Blanco P, Cortes S, Castro M, Villa T, Sieiro C (2000) Use of a PGU1 recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in oenological fermentations. J Appl Microbiol 89:876–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Vilanova M, Ugliano M, Varela C, Siebert T, Pretorius IS, Henschke P (2007) Assimilable nitrogen utilisation and production of volatile and non-volatile compounds in chemically defined medium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 77:145–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Vuralhan Z, Luttik MA, Tai SL, Boer VM, Morais MA, Schipper D, Almering MJ, Kotter P, Dickinson JR, Daran JM, Pronk JT (2005) Physiological characterization of the ARO10-dependent, broad-substrate-specificity 2-oxo acid decarboxylase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:3276–3284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Vuralhan Z, Morais MA, Tai SL, Piper MD, Pronk JT (2003) Identification and characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4534–4541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Wood C, Siebert T, Parker M, Capone D, Elsey G, Pollnitz A, Eggers M, Meier M, Vossing T, Widder S, Krammer G, Sefton M, Herderich M (2008) From wine to pepper: rotundone, an obscure sesquiterpene, is a potent spicy aroma compound. J Agric Food Chem 56:3738–3744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Yoshimoto H, Fukushige T, Yonezawa T, Sakai Y, Okawa K, Iwamatsu A, Sone H, Tamai Y (2001) Pyruvate decarboxylase encoded by the PDC1 gene contributes, at least partially, to the decarboxylation of alpha-ketoisocaproate for isoamyl alcohol formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biosci Bioeng 92:83–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Yoshimoto H, Fukushige T, Yonezawa T, Sone H (2002) Genetic and physiological analysis of branched-chain alcohols and isoamyl acetate production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 59:501–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Zalacain A, Marin J, Alonso G, Salinas M (2007) Analysis of wine primary aroma compounds by stir bar sorptive extraction. Talanta 71:1610–1615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Industrial Microbiology 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustav Styger
    • 1
  • Bernard Prior
    • 1
  • Florian F. Bauer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Wine BiotechnologyStellenbosch UniversityStellenboschSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations