Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology

, Volume 37, Issue 9, pp 943–952

Start-up and stabilization of an Anammox process from a non-acclimatized sludge in CSTR

Original Paper


Development of an Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process using non-acclimatized sludge requires a long start-up period owing to the very slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. This article addresses the issue of achieving a shorter start-up period for Anammox activity in a well-mixed continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using non-acclimatized anaerobic sludge. Proper selection of enrichment conditions and low stirring speed of 30 ± 5 rpm resulted in a shorter start-up period (82 days). Activity tests revealed the microbial community structure of Anammox micro-granules. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were found on the surface and on the outer most layers of granules while nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and Anammox bacteria were present inside. Fine-tuning of influent NO2/NH4+ ratio allowed Anammox activity to be maintained when mixed microbial populations were present. The maximum nitrogen removal rate achieved in the system was 0.216 kg N/(m3 day) with a maximum specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.434 g N/(g VSS day). During the study period, Anammox activity was not inhibited by pH changes and free ammonia toxicity.


Anammox CSTR FISH SEM Nitrogen removal 


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Copyright information

© Society for Industrial Microbiology 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wastewater Technology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research InstituteCouncil of Scientific and Industrial ResearchNagpurIndia

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