Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production

Original Paper

Abstract

Biofuels demand is unquestionable in order to reduce gaseous emissions (fossil CO2, nitrogen and sulfur oxides) and their purported greenhouse, climatic changes and global warming effects, to face the frequent oil supply crises, as a way to help non-fossil fuel producer countries to reduce energy dependence, contributing to security of supply, promoting environmental sustainability and meeting the EU target of at least of 10% biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. Biodiesel is usually produced from oleaginous crops, such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm. However, the use of microalgae can be a suitable alternative feedstock for next generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels, using currently available technology; they have fast growth rate, permit the use of non-arable land and non-potable water, use far less water and do not displace food crops cultures; their production is not seasonal and they can be harvested daily. The screening of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina maxima, Nannochloropsis sp., Neochloris oleabundans, Scenedesmus obliquus and Dunaliella tertiolecta) was done in order to choose the best one(s), in terms of quantity and quality as oil source for biofuel production. Neochloris oleabundans (fresh water microalga) and Nannochloropsis sp. (marine microalga) proved to be suitable as raw materials for biofuel production, due to their high oil content (29.0 and 28.7%, respectively). Both microalgae, when grown under nitrogen shortage, show a great increase (~50%) in oil quantity. If the purpose is to produce biodiesel only from one species, Scenedesmus obliquus presents the most adequate fatty acid profile, namely in terms of linolenic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the microalgae Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp. and Dunaliella tertiolecta can also be used if associated with other microalgal oils and/or vegetable oils.

Keywords

Neochloris oleoabundans Scenedesmus obliquus Nannochloropsis sp. Dunaliella tertiolecta Lipids Biofuels Biodiesel 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Doutora Narcisa Bandarra from IPIMAR for the fatty acid analysis and also Mrs. Ana Melo and Mr. Roberto Medeiros for the experimental work.

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Copyright information

© Society for Industrial Microbiology 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Energias RenováveisInstituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e InovaçãoLisbonPortugal

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