Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology

, Volume 35, Issue 10, pp 1103–1108 | Cite as

Laccase treatment of recycled blue dyed paper: physical properties and fiber charge

  • Chellandi Mohandass
  • Kristina Knutson
  • Arthur J. Ragauskas
Original Paper

Abstract

Recycled blue colored paper was treated with laccase under various combinations of physical and chemical parameters including enzyme concentration, temperature, oxygen, and reaction time. Laccase treatment of recycled dyed pulp increased acid group content, tear index, tensile index, and color removal in a dose-dependent manner. Lengthening the treatment time from 2 to 4 h was beneficial to acid group content (12% increase), dye removal, and tensile index but had a detrimental 8% decrease on the tear index. A higher reaction temperature (65 vs. 45 °C) had a beneficial effect on acid group content (+31%), and tensile index (+26%) and a slightly negative effect on tear index (−5%), but significantly reduced the ability of laccase to remove color. Comparison of reactions subjected to different levels of oxygen supplementation showed the greatest beneficial effect for laccase treatment with slow oxygen bubbling. The experimental results indicate that laccase treatment increases fiber carboxylic acid content and tensile strength, in addition to reducing the color of the enzyme treated paper.

Keywords

Colored paper Carboxylic acid Mediator (TEMPO) Recycling Physical properties Laccase Biobleaching 

References

  1. 1.
    American Forest and Paper Association (AFPA)(2004) Recovered paper statistical high lights 2004 edn. http://www.stats.paperrecycles.org/
  2. 2.
    Gottsching L (1999) Ecological challenges of the 21st century. Revue ATIP 53:134–139Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Darlington B, Jerzerc G, Magnotta V, Naddeo R, Waller F, White-Gaebe K (1992) Secondary fiber color stripping: evaluation of alternatives. TAPPI Pulping Conf Proc Bk 1:67–74Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Camarero S, Ibarra D, Martinez AT, Romero J, Gutierrez A, del Rio JC (2007) Paper pulp delignification using laccase and natural mediators. Enzyme Microb Technol 40:1264–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Knutson K, Kirzan S, Ragauskas AJ (2005) Enzymatic biobleaching of two recalcitrant paper dyes with horseradish and soybean peroxidase. Biotechnol Lett 27:753–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abadulla E, Tzanov T, Costa S, Robra KH, Cavaco-Paulo A, Gubitz GM (2000) Decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes with a laccase from Trametes hirsute. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:3357–3362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    d’Acunzo F, Galli C, Gentili P, Sergi F (2006) Mechanistic and steric issues in the oxidation of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds by laccase or laccase-mediator systems. The case of bifunctional substrates. New J Chem 30:583–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Knutson K, Ragauskas AJ (2003) An auspicious application of laccase and hydrogen peroxidases for biobleaching of recalcitrant paper dyes. In 12th international symposium on wood and pulping chemistry, Madison, WI, USA, 2003. Tappi Press, Atlanta, 2003Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rochefort D, Leech D, Bourbonnais R (2004) Electron transfer mediator systems for bleaching of paper pulp. Green Chem 6:14–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chakar FS, Ragauskas AJ (2004) Biobleaching chemistry of laccase-mediator systems on high-lignin-content kraft pulps. Can J Chem 82(2):344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Viikari L, Kruus K, Buchert J (1999) Method for modification of cellulose WO/1999/23117 (PCT/FI1999/000861) Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang D, Chai XS, Pu Y, Ragauskas AJ (2007) Lignocellulosic fiber charge enhancement by catalytic oxidation during oxygen delignification. J Colloid Interface Sci 306:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mansfield SD (2002) Laccase impregnation during mechanical pulp processing—improved refining efficiency and sheet strength. Appita J 55:49–53Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lund M, Felby CF (2001) Wet strength Improvement of unbleached Kraft pulp though laccase catalyzed oxidation. Enzyme Microb Technol 28:760–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chandra RP, Ragauskas AJ (2002) Evaluating laccase facilitated coupling of phenolic acids to high kappa Kraft pulps. Enzyme Microb Technol 30:855–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chandra RP, Ragauskas AJ (2001) Sculpting the molecular weight of lignin via laccase. In 11th international symposium on wood and pulping chemistry. Nice, France, 2001, Tappi Press, Atlanta 2:39–43Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bourbonnais R, Paice MG, Freiermuth B, Bodie E, Borneman S (1997) Reactivities of various mediators and laccases with kraft pulp and lignin model compounds. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:4627–4632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sealey J, Ragauskas AJ (1998) Residual lignin studies of laccase-delignified kraft pulps. Enzyme Microb Technol 23:422–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Knutson K, Ragauskas A (2004) Laccase-mediator biobleaching applied to a direct yellow dyed paper. Biotechnol Prog 20:1893–1896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    TAPPI test methods (2002) Tappi Press, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sharpe PE (1996) Optical testing in 1996 deinking short course. TAPPI Press, Atlanta 547–579Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peterson ME, Daniel RM, Danson MJ, Eisenthal R (2007) The dependence of enzyme activity on temperature: determination and validation of parameters. Biochem J 402:331–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Balakshin M, Chen CL, Gratzl JS, Kirkman AG, Jakob H (2001) Biobleaching of pulp with dioxygen in laccase-mediator system—effect of variables on the reaction kinetics. J Mol Catal B Enzym 16:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gerken BM, Wattenbach C, Linke D, Zorn H, Berger RG, Parlar H (2005) Tweezing-adsorptive bubble separation analytical method for the selective and high enrichment of metalloenzymes. Anal Chem 77:6113–6117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bourbonnais R, Paice MG (1990) Oxidation of non phenolic substrates an expanded role for laccase in lignin biodegradation. FEBS Lett 267:99–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Crestini C, Argyropoulous DS (1998) The early oxidative biodegradation steps of residual kraft lignin models with laccase. Bioorg Med Chem 6:2161–2169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zille A, Ramalho P, Tzanov T, Millward R, Aires V, Cardoso MH, Ramalho MT, Guebitz GM, Cavaco-Paulo A (2004) Predicting dye biodegradation from redox potentials. Biotechnol Prog 20:1588–1592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D’Acunzo F, Baiocco P, Fabbrini M, Galli C, Gentili PA (2002) Mechanistic survey of the oxidation of alcohols and ethers with the enzyme laccase and its mediation by TEMPO. Eur J Org Chem 24:4195–4201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saito T, Isogai A (2005) A novel method to improve wet strength of paper. Tappi J 4:3–8Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    d’Acunzo F, Galli C, Masci B (2002) Oxidation of phenols by laccase and laccase-mediator systems. Solubility and steric issues. Eur J Biochem 269:5330–5335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Barrreca AM, Sjoegren B, Fabbrini M, Galli C, Gentili P (2004) Catalytic efficiency of some mediators in laccase-catalyzed alcohol oxidation. Biocatal Biotransformation 22:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Granfeldt T (1998) Environmental friendly bleaching of white grade deinked pulps to high brightness levels. Kami Pa Gikyoshi 52(7):929–936Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Industrial Microbiology 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chellandi Mohandass
    • 1
  • Kristina Knutson
    • 2
  • Arthur J. Ragauskas
    • 2
  1. 1.Biological Oceanography DivisionNational Institute of OceanographyDona-PaulaIndia
  2. 2.School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and TechnologyGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations