Improvement of biodesulfurization activity of alginate immobilized cells in biphasic systems

  • Y. G. Li
  • J. M. Xing
  • X. C. Xiong
  • W. L. Li
  • H. S. Gao
  • H. Z. Liu
Original Paper


The immobilization of Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8 in calcium alginate beads has been studied in order to improve biodesulfurization activity in oil/water (O/W) biphasic systems. A gas jet extrusion technique was performed to produce immobilized beads. The specific desulfurization rate of 1.5 mm diameter beads was 1.4-fold higher than that of 4.0 mm. Some nonionic surfactants can significantly increase the activity of immobilized cells. The desulfurization rate with the addition of 0.5% Span 80 increased 1.8-fold compared with that of the untreated beads. The rate of biodesulfurization was markedly enhanced by decreasing the size of alginate beads and adding the surfactant Span 80, most likely resulting from the increasing mass transfer of substrate to gel matrix.


Biodesulfurization Immobilization Alginate Dibenzothiophene Pseudomonas delafieldii O/W systems 



This work was financially supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 20060102Z2042), and the State Major Basic Research Development Program of China (No. 2006CB202507).


  1. 1.
    Cassidy MB, Lee H, Trevors JT (1996) Environmental applications of immobilized microbial cells: a review. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 16:79–101Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chang JH, Chang YK, Ryu HW, Chang HN (2000) Desulfurization of light gas oil in immobilized-cell systems of Gordona sp. CYKS1 and Nocardia sp. CYKS2. FEMS Microbiol Lett 182:309–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chang JH, Kim YJ, Lee BH, Cho KS, Ryu HW, Chang YK, Chang HN (2001) Production of a desulfurization biocatalyst by two-stage fermentation and its application for the treatment of model and diesel oils. Biotechnol Prog 17:876–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Choi OK, Cho KS, Ryu HW, Chang YK (2003) Enhancement of phase separation by the addition of de-emulsifiers to three-phase (diesel oil/biocatalyst/aqueous phase) emulsion in diesel biodesulfurization. Biotechnol Lett 25:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gray KA, Pogrebinsky OS, Mrachko GT, Xi L, Monticello DJ, Squires CH (1996) Molecular mechanisms of biocatalytic desulfurization of fossil fuels. Nat Biotechnol 14:1705–1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gunther K, Helmut S (1993) Immobilization of Proteus vulgaris for the reduction of 2-oxo acids with hydrogen gas or formate to d-2-hydroxy acids. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 38:441–446Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guobin S, Jianmin X, Chen G, Huizhou L, Jiayong C (2005) Biodesulfurization using Pseudomonas delafieldii in magnetic polyvinyl alcohol beads. Lett Appl Microbiol 40:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta N, Roychoudhury PK, Deb JK (2005) Biotechnology of desulfurization of diesel: prospects and challenges. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66:356–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hou YF, Kong Y, Yang JR, Zhang JH, Shi DQ, Xin W (2005) Biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene by immobilized cells of Pseudomonas stutzeri UP-1. Fuel 84:1975–1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Houng JY, Chiang WP, Chen KC, Tiu C (1994) 11 α-Hydroxylation of progesterone in biphasic media using alginate-entrapped Aspergillus ochraceus gel beads coated with polyurea. Enzyme Microb Technol 16:485–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kilbane JJ II (2006) Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels. Curr Opin Biotechnol 17:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Klein J, Stock J, Vorlop KD (1983) Pore size and properties of spherical Ca-alginate biocatalysts. Eur J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 18:86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klibanov AM (1983) Immobilized enzymes and cells as practical catalysts. Science 219:722–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Konishi M, Kishimoto M, Tamesui N, Omasa I, Shioya S, Ohtake H (2005) The separation of oil from an oil–water–bacteria mixture using a hydrophobic tubular membrane. Biochem Eng J 24:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Labana S, Pandey G, Jain RK (2005) Desulphurization of dibenzothiophene and diesel oils by bacteria. Lett Appl Microbiol 40:159–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leon R, Fernandes P, Pinheiro HM, Cabral JMS (1998) Whole-cell biocatalysis in organic media. Enzyme Microb Technol 23:483–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liese A, Seelbach K, Wandrey C (2006) Industrial biotransformations, 2nd Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition. Wiley-VCH, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maghsoudi S, Vossoughi M, Kheirolomoom A, Tanaka E, Katoh S (2001) Biodesulfurization of hydrocarbons and diesel fuels by Rhodococcus sp strain P32C1. Biochem Eng J 8:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McFarland BL, Boron DJ, Deever W, Meyer JA, Johnson AR, Atlas RM (1998) Biocatalytic sulfur removal from fuels: applicability for producing low sulfur gasoline. Crit Rev Microbiol 24:99–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Noda KI, Watanabe K, Maruhashi K (2003) Isolation of a recombinant desulfurizing 4,6-dipropyl dibenzothiophene in n-tetradecane. J Biosci Bioeng 95:354–360Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seifert DB, Phillips JA (1997) Production of small, monodispersed alginate beads for cell immobilization. Biotechnol Prog 13:562–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Setti L, Lanzarini G, Pifferi PG (1997) Whole cell biocatalysis for an oil desulfurization process. Fuel Process Technol 52:145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shan GB, Xing JM, Zhang HY, Liu HZ (2005) Biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene by microbial cells coated with magnetite nanoparticles. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4497–4502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Song C, Ma XL (2003) New design approaches to ultra-clean diesel fuels by deep desulfurization and deep dearomatization. Appl Catal B-Environ 41:207–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Song SH, Choi SS, Park K, Yoo YJ (2005) Novel hybrid immobilization of microorganisms and its applications to biological denitrification. Enzyme Microb Technol 37:567–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang P, Humphrey AE, Krawiec S (1996) Kinetic analyses of desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by Rhodococcus erythropolis in continuous cultures. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:3066–3068Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yu B, Xu P, Shi Q, Ma CQ (2006) Deep desulfurization of diesel oil and crude oils by a newly isolated Rhodococcus erythropolis strain. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:54–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Industrial Microbiology 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Separation Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biochemical EngineeringInstitute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations