Acrylamide synthesis using agar entrapped cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 in a partitioned fed batch reactor
- 203 Downloads
The nitrile hydratase (Nhase) induced cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 catalyzed the conversion of acrylonitrile to acrylamide. The cells of R. rhodochrous PA-34 immobilized in 2% (w/v) agar (1.76 mg dcw/ml agar matrix) exhibited maximum Nhase activity (8.25 U/mg dcw) for conversion of acrylonitrile to acrylamide at 10°C in the reaction mixture containing 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5), 8% (w/v) acrylonitrile and immobilized cells equivalent to 1.12 mg dcw (dry cell weight) per ml. In a partitioned fed batch reaction at 10°C, using 1.12 g dcw immobilized cells in a final volume of 1 l, a total of 372 g of acrylonitrile was completely hydrated to acrylamide (498 g) in 24 h. From the above reaction mixture 87% acrylamide (432 g) was recovered through crystallization at 4°C. By recycling the immobilized biocatalyst (six times), a total of 2,115 g acrylamide was produced.
KeywordsRhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 Immobilized biocatalyst Agar Acrylonitrile Acrylamide Partitioned reactor
We acknowledge the financial support in the form of Senior Research Fellowship from University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India to Mr. Jog Raj, from the Council and Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) to Mr. Nitya Nand Sharma and from the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, New Delhi to Mr. Shreenath Prasad. The computational facility availed at Bioinformatics Centre, H. P. University is gratefully acknowledge.
- 1.Andhale MS, Hamde VS (1996) Isolation and screening of acrylamide producing microorganisms. Ind J Exp Biol 34:1005–1009Google Scholar
- 2.Barbotin JN, Nava-Saucedo JE (1998) Bioencapsulation of living cells by entrapment in polysaccharide gels. In: Polysaccharides—structural diversity and functional versality. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 750–751Google Scholar
- 6.Chaplin MF, Bucke C (1990) Enzyme technology. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 9.Hijort CM, Godtfredsen SE, Emborg C (1990) Isolation and characterization of nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus sp J Chem Tech Biotechnol 48:217–226Google Scholar
- 11.Kierstan MPJ, Coughlan MP (1985) Immobilization of cells and enzymes by gel entrapment. In: Immobilized cells and enzymes—a practical approach. IRL, Oxford, pp 43–45Google Scholar
- 13.Maxwell GR (2004) Synthetic nitrogen products: a practical guide to the products and processes. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 395–396Google Scholar
- 15.Mitsubishi Rayon (2001) Enzymatic production of acrylamide. In: The application of biotechnology to industrial sustainability. OCED, France, pp 71–75Google Scholar