Perspective of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase in stress agriculture

  • Muhammad Saleem
  • Muhammad ArshadEmail author
  • Sarfraz Hussain
  • Ahmad Saeed Bhatti


Ethylene is a gaseous plant growth hormone produced endogenously by almost all plants. It is also produced in soil through a variety of biotic and abiotic mechanisms, and plays a key role in inducing multifarious physiological changes in plants at molecular level. Apart from being a plant growth regulator, ethylene has also been established as a stress hormone. Under stress conditions like those generated by salinity, drought, waterlogging, heavy metals and pathogenicity, the endogenous production of ethylene is accelerated substantially which adversely affects the root growth and consequently the growth of the plant as a whole. Certain plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) contain a vital enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which regulates ethylene production by metabolizing ACC (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into α-ketobutyrate and ammonia. Inoculation with PGPR containing ACC deaminase activity could be helpful in sustaining plant growth and development under stress conditions by reducing stress-induced ethylene production. Lately, efforts have been made to introduce ACC deaminase genes into plants to regulate ethylene level in the plants for optimum growth, particularly under stressed conditions. In this review, the primary focus is on giving account of all aspects of PGPR containing ACC deaminase regarding alleviation of impact of both biotic and abiotic stresses onto plants and of recent trends in terms of introduction of ACC deaminase genes into plant and microbial species.


1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase Ethylene Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Stresses 



The financial support for this study was provided by Higher Education Commission (HEC), Islamabad, Pakistan. We are also thankful to Dr. Maria L.W. Sels for editing this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Society for Industrial Microbiology 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Saleem
    • 1
  • Muhammad Arshad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sarfraz Hussain
    • 1
  • Ahmad Saeed Bhatti
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

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