GPS Solutions

, 23:106 | Cite as

GNSS metadata and data validation in the EUREF Permanent Network

  • Carine BruyninxEmail author
  • Juliette Legrand
  • András Fabian
  • Eric Pottiaux
Original Article


The EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) is a network of continuously operating GNSS stations installed throughout the European continent. The EPN Central Bureau (CB) performs the day-to-day EPN coordination, acts as liaison between station operators, data centers, and analysis centers, and maintains the EPN Information System. Over the last years, the EPN CB has accommodated the enhancements required by the new EU General Data Protection Regulation, new multi-GNSS signals, new RINEX formats, increased usage of real-time GNSS data, and the new GeodesyML metadata exchange format. We will discuss how the EPN CB validates and provides access to EPN station metadata and monitors EPN data sets in terms of availability, latency, and quality to ensure they meet the user requirements. The analysis of 23 years of EPN GNSS data quality checks demonstrates some of the most frequently encountered tracking problems affecting EPN stations, and specific GNSS receiver types, throughout the years.


EPN EUREF GNSS Metadata Data quality 



  1. Adam J et al (2002) Status of the European reference frame—EUREF. IAG Symp Ser 125:42–46Google Scholar
  2. Bergeot N, Chevalier JM, Bruyninx C, Pottiaux E, Aerts W, Baire Q, Legrand J, Defraigne P, Huang W (2014) Near real-time ionospheric monitoring over Europe at the Royal Observatory of Belgium using GNSS data. J Space Weather Space Clim 4:A31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boler F, Brown N, Bruyninx C, Johnston G (2017) Progress toward a standard-based XML system for IGS network site log metadata management and dissemination using GeodesyML. Accessed 12 Dec 2018
  4. Brown N, Fraser R, Johnston G (2016) Maximising interoperability and discoverability of geodetic products and services. Accessed 12 Dec 2018
  5. Bruyninx C (2017) Guidelines for EPN stations and operational centers. Accessed 5 Feb 2019
  6. Bruyninx C, Kenyeres A, Takacs B (2002) EPN data and product analysis for improved velocity estimation: first results. IAG Symp Ser 125:47–53Google Scholar
  7. Bruyninx C, Carpentier G, Roosbeek F (2009) The EUREF permanent network: monitoring and on-line resources. IAG Symp Ser 134:137–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruyninx C, Habrich H, Söhne W, Kenyeres A, Stangl G, Völksen C (2012) Enhancement of the EUREF permanent network services and products. IAG Symp Ser 136:27–35. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruyninx C, Araszkiewicz A, Brockmann E, Kenyeres A, Legrand J, Liwosz T, Mitterschiffthaler P, Pacione R, Söhne W, Völksen C (2018) EUREF permanent network technical report 2017. In: Villiger A, Dach R (eds) International GNSS service 2017 technical report. IGS Central Bureau and University of Bern, Bern Open Publishing, pp 105–115.
  10. CDDIS (2019) Merged multi-GNSS broadcast navigation files. Accessed 27 May 2019
  11. Dousa J (2019) GOP’s consolidated multi-GNSS navigation data archive. Royal Observatory of Belgium.
  12. Drewes H, Kuglitsch F, Adám J, Szabolcs R (2016) The geodesist’s handbook 2016. J Geod 90(10):907–1205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Estey LH, Meertens CM (1999) TEQC: the multi-purpose toolkit for GPS/GLONASS data. GPS Solut 3(1):42–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. European Union (EU) (2016) Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation). Accessed 6 Feb 2019
  15. Gendt G (2005) Planned changes to IGS antenna calibrations. Accessed 5 Feb 2019
  16. GLONASS constellation status (2019). Accessed 27 May 2019
  17. Guerova G, Jones J, Douša J, Dick G, de Haan S, Pottiaux E, Bock O, Pacione R, Elgered G, Vedel H, Bender M (2016) Review of the state of the art and future prospects of the ground-based GNSS meteorology in Europe. Atmos Meas Tech 9:5385–5406. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gurtner W, Estey L (2012) RINEX: RINEX—the Receiver Independent EXchange format 2.11. Accessed 26 June 2012
  19. IGS RINEX WG, RTCM-SC104 (2013) RINEX—the Receiver Independent EXchange format, Version 3.02. Accessed 7 Feb 2019
  20. IGS RINEX WG, RTCM-SC104 (2015) RINEX—the Receiver Independent EXchange format, Version 3.03. Accessed 14 July 2015
  21. IGS RINEX WG, RTCM-SC104 (2018) RINEX—the Receiver Independent EXchange format, Version 3.04. Accessed 7 Feb 2019
  22. Jeffery KG, Bailo D (2014) EPOS: using metadata in geoscience. In: Closs S, Studer R, Garoufallou E, Sicilia MA (eds) Metadata and semantics research. MTSR 2014. Communications in computer and information science, vol 478. Springer, Cham, pp 170–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnston G, Riddell A, Hausler G (2017) The international GNSS service. In: Teunissen P, Montenbruck O (eds) Springer handbook of global navigation satellite systems, 1st edn. Springer, Cham. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kenyeres A, Bruyninx C (2004) Monitoring of the EPN coordinate time series for improved reference frame maintenance. GPS Solut 8(4):200–209. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nguyen HN, Vernant P, Mazzotti S, Khazaradze G, Asensio E (2016) 3-D GPS velocity field and its implications on the present-day post-orogenic deformation of the Western Alps and Pyrenees. Solid Earth 7(5):1349–1363. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nocquet J-M, Calais E, Parsons B (2005) Geodetic constraints on glacial isostatic adjustment in Europe. Geophys Res Lett 32:L06308. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pacione R, Araszkiewicz A, Brockmann E, Dousa J (2017) EPN-Repro2: a reference GNSS tropospheric data set over Europe. Atmos Meas Tech 10:1689–1705. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. RTCM (2013) Radio technical commission for maritime services (RTCM) standard 10403.2, differential GNSS (global navigation satellite systems) services, Version 3 with Amendment 2, 7 Nov 2013Google Scholar
  29. Václavovic P, Dousa J (2016) G-Nut/Anubis—open-source tool for multi-GNSS data monitoring. IAG Symp Ser 143:775–782. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Weber G, Dettmering D, Gebhard H (2005) Networked transport of RTCM via internet protocol (NTRIP). IAG Symp Ser 128:60–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Weber G, Mervart L, Stürze A, Rulke A, Stöcker D (2016) BKG Ntrip client (BNC) version 2.12. Vol. 49 of Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes für Kartographie und GeodäsieGoogle Scholar
  32. Wübbena G, Schmitz M, Boettcher G, Schumann C (2006) Absolute GNSS antenna calibration with a robot: repeatability of phase variations, calibration of GLONASS and determination of carrier-to-noise pattern. In: Proceedings of the IGS workshop 2006 perspectives and visions for 2010 and beyond, May 8–12, Darmstadt, GermanyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Royal Observatory of BelgiumBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations