GNSS PPP with different troposphere models during severe weather conditions
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Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)-derived zenith wet delays must be estimated precisely for monitoring weather variations and rain passages in the troposphere. We processed a set of International GNSS Service (IGS) stations within the area affected by the central European Flooding 2013 and assessed the performance of post-processed precise point positioning (PPP) during severe weather by applying different troposphere models: the Vienna Mapping Function (VMF1) together with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts grids, the global mapping function with the Global Pressure and Temperature 2, the Niell mapping function with the University of New Brunswick (UNB), and the VMF1 with the UNB/VMF1 from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction numerical weather model (NWM) data. Wet delay estimates from each PPP session have been verified through the IGS final troposphere products, local surface measurements and double-difference (DD) GNSS solutions performed at the same sites. All the PPP solutions agree well with the IGS. The mean residuals are all below 2.0 mm, and the PPP VMF1 performs better with RMS of 4.0 mm. The PPP solutions applying an NWM offer better agreement with the PPP solutions using real surface measurements to model the troposphere. Both PPP and DD VMF1 solutions agree with RMS of 5.4 mm, which allowed PPP to offer a strong alternative to post-processed DD solutions, even during severe weathers. With respect to the daily ITRF08 coordinate solutions, the gridded VMF1-based PPP height repeatability is better for most stations before and after the observations are corrected for atmospheric non-tidal loading effect.
KeywordsGNSS PPP Zenith wet delay Zenith hydrostatic delay IGS European Flooding 2013
This study is based on the Ph.D. dissertation of Engin Tunalı, Istanbul Technical University with the title of “Monitoring Tropospheric Water Vapor Variations with PPP during Severe Weather.” The authors would like to thank the International GNSS Service (IGS) (Dow et al. 2009) for the GNSS satellites orbits and clocks. The daily RINEX observations were downloaded from the IGS Data Center at CDDIS. We would like to thank the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) for the GNSS software package Bernese v.5.2 (Dach et al. 2015) and Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) for the auxiliary files necessary for the software. The support of these institutions is appreciatively acknowledged. The reviewers are sincerely acknowledged for their valuable comments to make the article better.
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