Advertisement

GPS Solutions

, 23:76 | Cite as

Fluctuations on vertical profiles of the ionospheric electron density perturbed by the March 11, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

  • Jann-Yenq LiuEmail author
  • Chao-Yen Chen
  • Yang-Yi Sun
  • I-Te Lee
  • Jaroslav Chum
Original Article

Abstract

The GPS radio occultation (RO) of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) with 1–2.5-km-altitude resolution is used to scan fluctuations on vertical profiles of the ionospheric electron density induced by seismic and tsunami waves of the March 11, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The Hilbert–Huang transform is applied to derive the instantaneous wave number and amplitude of the fluctuations in 22 (7 before and 15 after) F3/C profiles within 3000 km in radius from the epicenter during the earthquake. Fluctuations of the vertical electron density profile induced by underneath Rayleigh and tsunami waves and their post-waves are examined. It is found that the right underneath Rayleigh wave can induce significant long-wavelength fluctuations of 50–105 km on the vertical profile of the electron density, while tsunami and their post-waves activate the prominent short-wavelength fluctuations less than 16 km on those profiles in the poleward side of the epicenter. Results show that RO is a powerful tool which is suitable to probe vertical fluctuations in the ionospheric electron density.

Keywords

GPS radio occultation Total electron content FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Tsunami Rayleigh wave Tohoku earthquake Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was finically supported by the Center for Astronautical Physics and Engineering (CAPE) from the Featured Area Research Center Program within the frame work of Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan. This study is supported by the grant of Ministry of Science and Technology to National Central University MOST 107-2119-M-008-018 and the ISSI-Bern International Team of Understanding Solid Earth/Ocean-Ionosphere Coupling (the team leader Makela J. (US) & Rolland L. (FR)). The support under the Grant 18-01969S by the Czech Science Foundation is also acknowledged. The authors acknowledge COSMIC Data Analysis and Archival Center (CDAAC, http://cosmic-io.cosmic.ucar.edu/cdaac/index.html) and Taiwan Analysis Center for COSMIC (TACC, http://tacc.cwb.gov.tw) for providing FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation data. The authors wish to thank Ms. P. H. Lin for cartoon graphing, as well as reviewers’ useful comments and suggestions which significantly improve the presentation.

References

  1. Chen CH, Saito A, Lin CH, Liu JY, Tsai HF, Tsugawa T, Otsuka Y, Nishioka M, Matsumura M (2011) Long-distance propagation of ionospheric disturbance generated by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Earth Planets Space 63:881–884.  https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2011.06.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chum J, Liu JY, Podolská K, Šindelářová T (2018) Infrasound in the ionosphere from earthquakes and typhoons. J Atmos Solar Terr Phys 171:72–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2017.07.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coisson P, Lognonné P, Walwer D, Rolland LM (2015) First tsunami gravity wave detection in ionospheric radio occultation data. Earth Space Sci 2:125–133.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014EA000054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davies K (1990) Ionospheric radio. Peter Peregrinus, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Halliday D, Resnick R, Walker J (2010) Fundamentals of physics, 9th edn. Wiley, Hoboken. ISBN 978-0-470-46911-8Google Scholar
  6. Hao YQ, Xiao Z, Zhang DH (2013) Teleseismic magnetic effects (TMDs) of 2011 Tohoku earthquake. J Geophys Res Space Phys 118:3914–3923.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgra.50326 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Heki K, Ping J (2005) Directivity and apparent velocity of the coseismic traveling ionospheric disturbances observed with a dense GPS array. Earth Planet Sci Lett 236:845–855.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang NE, Shen Z, Long SR, Wu MC, Shih HH, Zheng Q, Yen NC, Tung CC, Liu HH (1998) The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and nonstationary time series analysis. Proc R Soc Lond Ser A 454:903–995.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1998.0193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kamogawa M, Orihara Y, Tsurudome C, Tomida Y, Kanaya T, Ikeda D, Gusman AR, Kakinami Y, Liu JY, Toyoda A (2016) A possible space-based tsunami early warning system using observations of the tsunami ionospheric hole. Sci Rep 6(37989):1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep37989 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kelley M (2009) The Earth’s ionosphere: plasma physics and electrodynamics, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu JY, Chen CH, Lin CH, Tsai HF, Chen CH, Kamogawa M (2011) Ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake. J Geophys Res 116:A06319.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011ja016761 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu JY, Sun YY, Tsai HF, Lin CH (2012) Seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake. Terr Atmos Ocean Sci 23:9–15.  https://doi.org/10.3319/TAO.2011.08.03.01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu JY et al (2016) The vertical propagation of disturbances triggered by seismic waves of the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake over Taiwan. Geophys Res Lett 43:1759–1765.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015gl067487 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Makela JJ et al (2011) Imaging and modeling the ionospheric airglow response over Hawaii to the tsunami generated by the Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011. Geophys Res Lett 38:L00G02.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl047860 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Maruyama T, Tsugawa T, Kato H, Saito A, Otsuka Y, Nishioka M (2011) Ionospheric multiple stratifications and irregularities induced by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Earth Planets Space 63:869–873.  https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2011.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maruyama T, Tsugawa T, Kato H, Ishii M, Nishioka M (2012) Rayleigh wave signature in ionograms induced by strong earthquakes. J Geophys Res 117:A08306.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JA017952 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nishitani N, Ogawa T, Otsuka Y, Hosokawa K, Hori T (2011) Propagation of large amplitude ionospheric disturbances with velocity dispersion observed by the SuperDARN Hokkaido radar after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Earth Planets Space 63:891–896.  https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2011.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ogawa T, Nishitani N, Tsugawa T, Shiokawa K (2012) Giant ionospheric disturbances observed with the SuperDARN Hokkaido HF radar and GPS network after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Earth Planets Space 64:1295–1307.  https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2012.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Otsuka Y, Kotake N, Tsugawa T, Shiokawa K, Ogawa T, Effendy Saito S, Kawamura M, Maruyama T, Hemmakorn N, Komolmis T (2006) GPS detection of total electron content variations over Indonesia and Thailand following the 26 December 2004 earthquake. Earth Planets Space 58:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rolland LM, Lognonné P, Astafyeva E, Kherani EA, Kobayashi N, Mann M, Munekane H (2011) The resonant response of the ionosphere imaged after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Earth Planets Space 63:853–857.  https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2011.06.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sun YY, Liu JY, Lin CY, Tsai HF, Chang LC, Chen CY, Chen CH (2016) Ionospheric F2 region perturbed by the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake. J Geophys Res Space Phys 121:5778–5784.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JA022280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tsai HF, Liu JY, Lin CH, Chen CH (2011) Tracking the epicenter and the tsunami origin with GPS ionosphere observation. Earth Planets Space 63:859–862.  https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2011.06.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tsugawa T, Saito A, Otsuka Y, Nishioka M, Maruyama T, Kato H, Nagatsuma T, Murata KT (2011) Ionospheric disturbances detected by GPS total electron content observation after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Earth Planets Space 63(7):875–879.  https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2011.06.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yan X, Sun YY, Yu T, Liu JY, Qi Y, Xia C, Zuo X, Yang N (2018) Stratosphere perturbed by the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku Earthquake. Geophys Res Lett 45:10–50.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2018gl079046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yen HY, Chen CR, Lo YT, Shin TC, Li Q (2015) Seismo-geomagnetic pulsations triggered by Rayleigh waves of the 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Terr Atmos Ocean Sci 26:95–101.  https://doi.org/10.3319/TAO.2014.10.09.01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Astronautical Physics and EngineeringNational Central UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  2. 2.Institute of Space ScienceNational Central UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  3. 3.Center for Space and Remote Sensing ResearchNational Central UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  4. 4.Institute of Geophysics and GeomaticsChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina
  5. 5.Central Weather BureauTaipeiTaiwan
  6. 6.Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsCzech Academy of SciencesPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations