Foundation and performance evaluation of real-time GNSS high-precision one-way timing system
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Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) can realize global time synchronization with tens of nanoseconds precision. For more precise time synchronization applications, two-way satellite time and frequency transfer is commonly used despite its high cost and requiring a geostationary satellite. Considering the high cost, people started to use the GNSS signals to realize high accuracy time transfer, named common-view or all-in-view, which can achieve several nanoseconds according to the analyses and verifications of previous studies. However, time transfer cannot realize real-time timing in a large area as a common GNSS one-way timing receiver does. In such a timing system, a highly stable reference and a matched high-precision timing receiver system are necessary. To solve this problem, we have established a one-way timing system based on a ground-based augmentation system. The system estimates real-time high-precision satellite clocks using the ground-based augmentation network as the time reference. Moreover, the time reference is transferred to the terminal through real-time precise point positioning (PPP). Finally, the timing receiver synchronizes its local clock to the reference by real-time clock adjustment, resulting in high-precision timing. We present the details of this system, including the time reference, the PPP algorithm, and the timing receiver technologies. Finally, we give the precision and stability evaluation of the whole system, especially for one pulse per second (1 PPS) outputs of the terminal. The results show that the stability of the 1 PPS output is better than 1 ns in a day.
KeywordsGNSS timing receiver Pulse per second Clock steering Hardware delay calibration
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFB0501804), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41604021).
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