Evaluation and calibration of BeiDou receiver-related pseudorange biases
The pseudorange observation of the BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) reveals some special errors. Except for the elevation-dependent code bias variations, we present receiver-related code biases of BDS. We have analyzed the BDS receiver-related code biases based on observations from 257 stations whose receivers are from seven different manufacturers. The results demonstrate that BDS code biases are related to receiver manufacturers and receiver models and that they can reach up to about 3.0 ns among different receiver types. Moreover, BDS receiver-related code biases are quite stable over a long period of time. There is no doubt that when mixed receiver types are used, the BDS receiver-related code biases will affect the accuracy of data processing, e.g., satellite differential code bias and satellite clock bias estimation. Thus, to correct BDS receiver-related code biases, correction models for different receiver types are established. Three experiments, including satellite clock estimation, single point positioning (SPP) and pseudorange residual analysis are carried out to validate the corrections proposed. The results prove that, with BDS receiver-related code biases corrected, the biases of satellite clock estimated by mixed receiver types are more consistent with those estimated by the same receiver types. Compared with results without code bias corrections, the average satellite clock bias decreases from 1.04 to 0.22 ns which is an improvement of about 78.8%. Moreover, the accuracy of the ionospheric-free SPP is improved by 7.3 and 10.0% on average in vertical and horizontal components, respectively. The percentage of pseudorange residuals distributed between − 0.5 and 0.5 m is improved from 49.8 to 53.2%.
KeywordsBeiDou Code bias Satellite clock bias SPP
This study is partially supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan (No. 2016YFB0501802), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41504028). The authors show great gratitudes to IGS, Curtin GNSS Research Centre and Survey and Mapping Office of the Lands Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for providing data.
- Chen J (1998) An integrated crustal movement monitoring network in China. In: Forsberg R, Feissel M, Dietrich R (eds) Geodesy on the move, vol 119. International Association of Geodesy Symposia, Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Edgar C, Czopek F, Barker B (1999) A co-operative anomaly resolution of PRN-19. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 1999, Institute of Navigation, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, September 14–17, pp 2269–2268Google Scholar
- Gisbert JVP, Batzilis N, Risueño GL, Rubio JA (2012) GNSS payload and signal characterization using a 3 m dish antenna. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2012, Institute of Navigation, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, September 17–21, pp 347–356Google Scholar
- Lestarquit L, Gregoire Y, Thevenon P (2012) Characterizing the GNSS correlation function using a high gain antenna and long coherent integration—application to signal quality monitoring. In: Proceedings of IEEE/ION PLANS 2012, Myrtle Beach, SC, April 24–26, pp 877–885Google Scholar
- Montenbruck O, Steigenberger P, Khachikyan R, Weber G, Langley RB, Mervart L, Hugentobler U (2013) IGS-MGEX: preparing the ground for multi-constellation GNSS science. In: 4th international colloquium on scientific and fundamental aspects of the Galileo system, 4–6 December 2013, Prague, CZGoogle Scholar
- Pini M, Akos D, Esterhuizen S, Mitelman A (2005) Analysis of GNSS signals as observed via a high gain parabolic antenna. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2005, Institute of Navigation, Long Beach, CA, September 13–16, pp. 1686–1695Google Scholar