GPS Solutions

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 897–903 | Cite as

Impact of GPS differential code bias in dual- and triple-frequency positioning and satellite clock estimation

  • Haojun Li
  • Bofeng Li
  • Lizhi Lou
  • Ling Yang
  • Jiexian Wang
Original Article


The features and differences of various GPS differential code bias (DCB)s are discussed. The application of these biases in dual- and triple-frequency satellite clock estimation is introduced based on this discussion. A method for estimating the satellite clock error from triple-frequency uncombined observations is presented to meet the need of the triple-frequency uncombined precise point positioning (PPP). In order to evaluate the estimated satellite clock error, the performance of these biases in dual- and triple-frequency positioning is studied. Analysis of the inter-frequency clock bias (IFCB), which is a result of constant and time-varying frequency-dependent hardware delays, in ionospheric-free code-based (P1/P5) single point positioning indicates that its influence on the up direction is more pronounced than on the north and east directions. When the IFCB is corrected, the mean improvements are about 29, 35 and 52% for north, east and up directions, respectively. Considering the contribution of code observations to PPP convergence time, the performance of DCB(P1–P2), DCB(P1–P5) and IFCB in GPS triple-frequency PPP convergence is investigated. The results indicate that the DCB correction can accelerate PPP convergence by means of improving the accuracy of the code observation. The performance of these biases in positioning further verifies the correctness of the estimated dual- and triple-frequency satellite clock error.


Differential code bias Precise positioning Satellite clock error Triple-frequency GPS 



This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41674029 and 41504022), the Key R&D Program (2016YFB0501701) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2014AA123102).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Surveying and Geo-InformaticsTongji UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Geo-Information EngineeringXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

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