GPS Solutions

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 299–312 | Cite as

Preliminary availability assessment to support single-frequency SBAS development in the Korean region

  • Eugene Bang
  • Jinsil Lee
  • Todd Walter
  • Jiyun Lee
Review Article


Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems (SBASs) enhance the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) to support all phases of flight by providing required accuracy, integrity, continuity, and availability. The Korean SBAS program was recently initiated to develop a single-frequency SBAS aiming to provide Approach Procedure with Vertical guidance (APV)-I Safety-of-Life (SoL) service to aviation users by 2022 within the Korean region. We assess the preliminary availability of the single-frequency SBAS which will be deployed in the Korean peninsula. The resulting system performance shall be used as a baseline to design system components and specifications. The fundamental components of SBAS architecture, SBAS monitor network, geostationary earth orbiting satellite parameters, and ionospheric grid point mask, are defined and their effects on system performance are investigated. Ionospheric correction and integrity algorithm parameters including an ionospheric irregularity threat model are determined using data collected from the Korean GNSS network. The coverage of 99.9 % availability for APV-I service increases from approximately 70 % for the baseline case to 100 % when SBAS monitor stations are expanded to overseas. Even with the expanded monitor network, however, 90 % and less than 95 % availability for LPV-200 service can be achieved only in a very limited region.


Space-Based Augmentation System (SBAS) SBAS architecture Availability 



The authors thank the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII), the DGPS Central Office (DCO), and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) for providing the Korean GPS observation data. The authors also would like to thank the International GNSS Service (IGS), a service of the International Association of Geodesy and of the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services for GPS observation data. The geomagnetic index data were made available by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric administration (NOAA) and the World Data Center for Geomagnetism at Kyoto University. Eugene Bang was supported by the Space Core Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2014M1A3A3A02034937). Jinsil Lee was supported by KAIST Institute (KI).


  1. Blanch J (2003) Using Kriging to bound satellite ranging errors due to the ionosphere. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  2. Bunce D (2013) Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)—Program Update. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS + 2013, Institute of Navigation, Nashville, TN, September, pp 2299–2326Google Scholar
  3. Enge P, Walter T, Pullen S, Kee C, Chao Y, Tsai Y (1996) Wide area augmentation of the global positioning system. Proc IEEE 84(8):1063–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ESSP (2015) EGNOS Service provision yearly report 2014–2015. European Satellite Service ProviderGoogle Scholar
  5. ISRO (2015) Annual report 2014–2015. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the Republic of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  6. Jung S, Lee J (2012) Long-term ionospheric anomaly monitoring for ground based augmentation systems. Radio Sci 47:RS4006. doi: 10.1029/2012RS005016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kim M, Lee J, Choi Y, Jun H (2014) GBAS ionospheric threat model assessment for category I operation in the Korean region. GPS Solut. doi: 10.1007/s10291-014-0404-6 Google Scholar
  8. Komjathy A, Sparks L, Mannucci AJ (2004) A new algorithm for generating high precision ionospheric ground-truth measurements for FAA’s Wide Area Augmentation System. JPL Supertruth Doc 1, Jet Propul Lab, Pasadena, CAGoogle Scholar
  9. Menvielle M, Berthelier A (1991) The K-derived planetary indices: description and availability. Rev Geophys 29(3):415–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. MLTM (2011) Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Implementation Plan. Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM), the Republic of KoreaGoogle Scholar
  11. Pandya N, Gran M, Paredes E (2007) WAAS performance improvement with a new undersampled ionospheric gradient threat model metric. In: Proceedings of ION NTM 2007, Institute of Navigation, San Diego, CA, January 2007, pp 291–304Google Scholar
  12. RTCA (2004) Minimum Operational Performance Standards for GPS Wide Area Augmentation System Airborne Equipment, DO-245A. Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Sakai T, Matsunaga K, Hoshinoo K, Walter T (2008) Modeling Ionospheric Spatial Threat Based on Dense Observation Datasets for MSAS. In: Proceedings of ION GNSS 2008, Institute of Navigation, Savannah, GA, September 2008, pp 1918–1928Google Scholar
  14. Sparks L, Komjathy A, Mannucci AJ (2005) Extreme ionospheric storms and their impact on WAAS. In: Proceedings of the ionospheric effect symposium 2005, Alexandria, VA, May 2005Google Scholar
  15. Sparks L, Blanch J, Pandya N (2011a) Estimating ionospheric delay using Kriging: 1. Methodology. Radio Sci 46:RS0D21. doi: 10.1029/2011RS004667 Google Scholar
  16. Sparks L, Blanch J, Pandya N (2011b) Estimating ionospheric delay using Kriging: 2. Impact on satellite-based augmentation system availability. Radio Sci 46:RS0D22. doi: 10.1029/2011RS004781 Google Scholar
  17. Wackernagel H (1998) Multivariate geostatistics: an introduction with applications, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Walter T, Hansen A, Blanch J, Enge P, Mannucci T, Pi X, Sparks L, Iijima B, El-Arini B, Lejeune R, Hagen M, Altshuler E, Fries R, Chu A (2001a) Robust detection of ionospheric irregularities. Navigation 48(2):89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Walter T, Hansen A, Enge P (2001b) Message Type 28. In: Proceedings of ION NTM 2001, Institute of Navigation, Long Beach, CA, January, pp 522–532Google Scholar
  20. Walter T, Rajagopal S, Datta-Barua S, Blanch J (2004) Protecting against unsampled ionospheric threats. In: Proceeding of the international beacon satellite symposium, Trieste, Italy, October 2004Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene Bang
    • 1
  • Jinsil Lee
    • 1
  • Todd Walter
    • 2
  • Jiyun Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Aerospace EngineeringKorea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Aeronautics and AstronauticsStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations