GPS Solutions

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 795–805 | Cite as

A closed-loop EKF and multi-failure diagnosis approach for cooperative GNSS positioning

  • Haiying Liu
  • Xiaolin Meng
  • Zhiming Chen
  • Scott Stephenson
  • Pekka Peltola
Original Article


Current cooperative positioning with global navigation satellite system (GNSS) for connected vehicle application mainly uses pseudorange measurements. However, the positioning accuracy offered cannot meet the requirements for lane-level positioning, collision avoidance and future automatic driving, which needs real-time positioning accuracy of better than 0.5 m. Furthermore, there is an apparent lack of research into the integrity issue for these new applications under emerging driverless vehicle applications. In order to overcome those problems, a new extended Kalman filter (EKF) and a multi-failure diagnosis algorithm are developed to process both GNSS pseudorange and carrier phase measurements. We first introduce a new closed-loop EKF with partial ambiguity resolution as feedback to address the low accuracy issue. Then a multi-failure diagnosis algorithm is proposed to improve integrity and reliability. The core of this new algorithm includes using Carrier phase-based Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring method for failure detection, and the double extended w test detectors to identify failure. A cooperative positioning experiment was carried out to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed closed-loop EKF can provide highly accurate positioning, and the multi-failure diagnosis method is effective in detecting and identifying failures for both code and carrier phase measurements.


GNSS Cooperative positioning EKF CRAIM Extended w test 



This research was supported by the Central Universities NUAA Fundamental Research (NS2015087). China Scholarship Council is gratefully acknowledged for supporting the first author’s visiting at The University of Nottingham. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments and suggestions of the reviewers, which have improved the presentation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haiying Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaolin Meng
    • 2
  • Zhiming Chen
    • 1
  • Scott Stephenson
    • 2
  • Pekka Peltola
    • 2
  1. 1.College of AstronauticsNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Nottingham Geospatial Institute and Sino-UK Geospatial Engineering CentreThe University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

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