GPS Solutions

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 289–297 | Cite as

Assessing the IRNSS L5-signal in combination with GPS, Galileo, and QZSS L5/E5a-signals for positioning and navigation

  • Nandakumaran NadarajahEmail author
  • Amir Khodabandeh
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
GNSS In Progress


The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), which is being developed for positioning services in and around India, is the latest addition to the global family of satellite-based navigation systems. As IRNSS only shares the L5-frequency with GPS, the European Galileo, and the Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), it has at least at present a limited interoperability with the existing systems. Noting that the L5-frequency capability is under development even for GPS, this contribution assesses the interoperability of the IRNSS L5-signal with the GPS, Galileo, and QZSS L5/E5a-signals for positioning and navigation using real data collected in Perth, Australia. First, the noise characteristic of the IRNSS L5-signal and its comparison with that of the GPS, Galileo, and QZSS L1/E1- and L5/E5a-signals is presented. Then, the L5-observables of combined systems (formed from IRNSS, GPS, Galileo, and QZSS) are assessed for real-time kinematic positioning using the standard LAMBDA method and for instantaneous attitude determination using the constrained LAMBDA method. The results show that the IRNSS L5-signal has comparable noise characteristics as that of the other L5/E5a-signals. For single-frequency carrier phase-based positioning and navigation, the results show better ambiguity resolution performance of L5/E5a-only processing than that of L1/E1-only processing.


GPS Galileo QZSS IRNSS Attitude determination Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning 



This work has been executed as part of the Positioning Program Project 1.01 “New carrier phase processing strategies for achieving precise and reliable multi-satellite, multi-frequency GNSS/RNSS positioning in Australia” of the Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI). The third author P. J. G. Teunissen is the recipient of an Australian Research Council Federation Fellowship (Project Number FF0883188). A development version of firmware for JAVAD receivers was kindly provided by JAVAD GNSS Inc. All this support is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nandakumaran Nadarajah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amir Khodabandeh
    • 1
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.GNSS Research CentreCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Delft Institute for Earth Observation and Space SystemsDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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