GPS Solutions

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 443–456 | Cite as

GBAS ionospheric threat model assessment for category I operation in the Korean region

  • Minchan Kim
  • Yunjung Choi
  • Hyang-Sig Jun
  • Jiyun Lee
Original Article


During extreme ionospheric storms, anomalous ionospheric gradients can become high enough to affect Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) and to threaten the safety of GBAS users. An ionospheric anomaly threat model for the Conterminous United States (CONUS) was developed based on extreme ionospheric gradients observed in CONUS during the last solar maximum period (2000–2004). However, in order to understand and mitigate ionosphere threats occurring in different geographical regions, ionospheric anomaly threat models have to be established for the relevant regions. To allow the certification of a GBAS ground facility in South Korea, a Korean ionospheric anomaly threat model must be determined. We describe the method of data analysis that was used to estimate ionospheric spatial gradients. Estimates of anomalous gradients in the Korean region were used to define and build an ionospheric anomaly threat model for this region. All gradient estimates obtained using Korean GNSS reference network data for potential ionospheric storm dates from 2000 to 2004 were included in this threat space. The maximum spatial gradient within this threat space is 160 mm of delay per km of user separation, which falls well within the bounds of the current ionospheric threat model for CONUS. We also provide a detailed examination of the two largest ionospheric spatial gradient events observed in this study, which occurred on November 10, 2004, and November 6, 2001, respectively.


GNSS GBAS LAAS Ionospheric threat model 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minchan Kim
    • 1
  • Yunjung Choi
    • 2
  • Hyang-Sig Jun
    • 2
  • Jiyun Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Aerospace EngineeringKorea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Korea Aerospace Research InstituteDaejeonRepublic of Korea

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