GPS Solutions

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 357–368 | Cite as

The mixed-receiver BeiDou inter-satellite-type bias and its impact on RTK positioning

  • Nandakumaran NadarajahEmail author
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
  • Jean-Marie Sleewaegen
  • Oliver Montenbruck
Original Article


The inter-satellite-type bias (ISTB) is a receiver-dependent hardware delay/bias between different satellite types. Our recent research revealed the existence of nonzero mixed-receiver phase ISTBs for the Chinese BeiDou system. Triggered by this finding, global navigation satellite system receiver manufactures, who are in the early stage of BeiDou-enabled receiver developments, are working toward a mutually consistent measurement extraction procedure. We analyze the long-term stability and current status of the mixed-receiver ISTBs, as well as study their impact on BeiDou stand-alone real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning. Our results confirm that a recent update in one of the receiver types has aligned it with one of the other receiver types. However, since not all receiver types are aligned yet, nonzero mixed-receiver ISTBs are shown to be still present. Analyses of BeiDou stand-alone RTK positioning using mixed-receiver types demonstrate that ISTBs could seriously affect the integer ambiguity resolution performance and that a priori correction for these biases will dramatically improve the success rate. Our analyses using real data from three different receiver types also demonstrate the long-term stability of the ISTBs, thus showing that such a priori calibration is indeed possible.


Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) BeiDou system (BDS) Inter-satellite-type bias (ISTB) Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning Carrier phase ambiguity resolution 



This work has been executed as part of the Positioning Program Project 1.01 “New carrier phase processing strategies for achieving precise and reliable multi-satellite, multi-frequency GNSS/RNSS positioning in Australia” of the Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI). The second author P. J. G. Teunissen is the recipient of an Australian Research Council Federation Fellowship (project number FF0883188). Data from UNX2 and UNX3 were obtained in the context of the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). An alpha-version of firmware for Septentrio receiver was kindly provided by Septentrio Satellite Navigation NV. All this support is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nandakumaran Nadarajah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jean-Marie Sleewaegen
    • 3
  • Oliver Montenbruck
    • 4
  1. 1.GNSS Research CentreCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Delft Institute for Earth Observation and Space SystemsDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Septentrio NVLouvainBelgium
  4. 4.German Space Operations CenterDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und RaumfahrtWeßlingGermany

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