GPS Solutions

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 357–368 | Cite as

The mixed-receiver BeiDou inter-satellite-type bias and its impact on RTK positioning

  • Nandakumaran Nadarajah
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
  • Jean-Marie Sleewaegen
  • Oliver Montenbruck
Original Article

Abstract

The inter-satellite-type bias (ISTB) is a receiver-dependent hardware delay/bias between different satellite types. Our recent research revealed the existence of nonzero mixed-receiver phase ISTBs for the Chinese BeiDou system. Triggered by this finding, global navigation satellite system receiver manufactures, who are in the early stage of BeiDou-enabled receiver developments, are working toward a mutually consistent measurement extraction procedure. We analyze the long-term stability and current status of the mixed-receiver ISTBs, as well as study their impact on BeiDou stand-alone real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning. Our results confirm that a recent update in one of the receiver types has aligned it with one of the other receiver types. However, since not all receiver types are aligned yet, nonzero mixed-receiver ISTBs are shown to be still present. Analyses of BeiDou stand-alone RTK positioning using mixed-receiver types demonstrate that ISTBs could seriously affect the integer ambiguity resolution performance and that a priori correction for these biases will dramatically improve the success rate. Our analyses using real data from three different receiver types also demonstrate the long-term stability of the ISTBs, thus showing that such a priori calibration is indeed possible.

Keywords

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) BeiDou system (BDS) Inter-satellite-type bias (ISTB) Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning Carrier phase ambiguity resolution 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nandakumaran Nadarajah
    • 1
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jean-Marie Sleewaegen
    • 3
  • Oliver Montenbruck
    • 4
  1. 1.GNSS Research CentreCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Delft Institute for Earth Observation and Space SystemsDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Septentrio NVLouvainBelgium
  4. 4.German Space Operations CenterDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und RaumfahrtWeßlingGermany

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