GLONASS pseudorange inter-channel biases and their effects on combined GPS/GLONASS precise point positioning
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Combined GPS/GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) can obtain a more precise and reliable position than GPS PPP. However, because of frequency division multiple access, GLONASS carrier phase and pseudorange observations suffer from inter-channel biases (ICBs) which will influence the accuracy and convergence speed of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP. With clear understanding of the characteristics of carrier phase ICBs, we estimated undifferenced GLONASS pseudorange ICBs for 133 receivers from five manufacturers and analyzed their characteristics. In general, pseudorange ICBs corresponding to the same firmware have strong correlations. The ICB values of two receivers with the same firmware may be different because of different antenna types, and their differences are closely related to frequency. Pseudorange ICBs should be provided for each satellite to obtain more precise ICBs as the pseudorange ICBs may vary even on the same frequency. For the solutions of standard point positioning (SPP), after pseudorange ICB calibration, the mean root mean square (RMS) improvements of GLONASS SPP reach up to 57, 48, and 53 % for the East, North, and Up components, while combined GPS/GLONASS SPP reach up to 27, 17, and 23 %, respectively. The combined GPS/GLONASS PPP after pseudorange ICB calibration evidently improved the convergence speed, and the mean RMS of PPP improved by almost 50 % during the convergence period.
KeywordsGLONASS GPS Inter-channel bias Pseudorange PPP
We thank Dr. Jianghui Geng, at University of California San Diego, for his valuable suggestions on this study. This study was supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (Grant No.2012AA12A202), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.2012M511671) and also by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No.2012618020202).
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