Short-term analysis of GNSS clocks
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A characterization of the short-term stability of the atomic frequency standards onboard GNSS satellites is presented. Clock performance is evaluated using two different methods. The first method derives the temporal variation of the satellite’s clock from a polynomial fit through 1-way carrier-phase measurements from a receiver directly connected to a high-precision atomic frequency standard. Alternatively, three-way measurements using inter-station single differences of a second satellite from a neighboring station are used if the receiver’s clock stability at the station tracking the satellite of interest is not sufficient. The second method is a Kalman-filter-based clock estimation based on dual-frequency pseudorange and carrier-phase measurements from a small global or regional tracking network. Both methods are introduced and their respective advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The analysis section presents a characterization of GPS, GLONASS, GIOVE, Galileo IOV, QZSS, and COMPASS clocks based on these two methods. Special focus has been set on the frequency standards of new generation satellites like GPS Block IIF, QZSS, and IOV as well as the Chinese COMPASS/BeiDou-2 system. The analysis shows results for the Allan deviation covering averaging intervals from 1 to 1,000 s, which is of special interest for real-time PPP and other high-rate applications like processing of radio-occultation measurements. The clock interpolation errors for different sampling rates are evaluated for different types of clocks and their effect on PPP is discussed.