GPS Solutions

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 389–404 | Cite as

Integrated GPS/INS navigation system with dual-rate Kalman Filter

Original Article


A dual-rate Kalman Filter (DRKF) has been developed to integrate the time-differenced GPS carrier phases and the GPS pseudoranges with INS measurements. The time-differenced GPS carrier phases, which have low noise and millimeter measurement precision, are integrated with INS measurements using a Kalman Filter with high update rates to improve the performance of the integrated system. Since the time-differenced GPS carrier phases are only relative measurements, when integrated with INS, the position error of the integrated system will accumulate over time. Therefore, the GPS pseudoranges are also incorporated into the integrated system using a Kalman Filter with a low update rate to control the accumulation of system errors. Experimental tests have shown that this design, compared to a conventional design using a single Kalman Filter, reduces the coasting error by two-thirds for a medium coasting time of 30 s, and the position, velocity, and attitude errors by at least one-half for a 45-min field navigation experiment.


GPS INS Sensor integration Dual-rate Kalman Filter 



The first author would like to show his appreciation to Chinese Scholarship Council for supporting his PhD study at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Australia. The authors also would like to thank Dr. Weidong Ding, Mr. Ali Almagbile, and Mr. Nathan Knight in the School of Surveying and Spatial Information Systems at UNSW, for their help during the experimental tests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Opto-Electric Science and EngineeringNational University of Defense TechnologyChangshaPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Surveying and Spatial Information SystemsThe University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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