GPS Solutions

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 239–252

Enhanced MEMS-IMU/odometer/GPS integration using mixture particle filter

  • Jacques Georgy
  • Tashfeen Karamat
  • Umar Iqbal
  • Aboelmagd Noureldin
Original Article


Dead reckoning techniques such as inertial navigation and odometry are integrated with GPS to avoid interruption of navigation solutions due to lack of visible satellites. A common method to achieve a low-cost navigation solution for land vehicles is to use a MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) for integration with GPS. This integration is traditionally accomplished by means of a Kalman filter (KF). Due to the significant inherent errors of MEMS inertial sensors and their time-varying changes, which are difficult to model, severe position error growth happens during GPS outages. The positional accuracy provided by the KF is limited by its linearized models. A Particle filter (PF), being a nonlinear technique, can accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics and motion dynamics. An enhanced version of the PF, called Mixture PF, is employed in this paper. It samples from both the prior importance density and the observation likelihood, leading to an improved performance. Furthermore, in order to enhance the performance of MEMS-based IMU/GPS integration during GPS outages, the use of pitch and roll calculated from the longitudinal and transversal accelerometers together with the odometer data as a measurement update is proposed in this paper. These updates aid the IMU and limit the positional error growth caused by two horizontal gyroscopes, which are a major source of error during GPS outages. The performance of the proposed method is examined on road trajectories, and results are compared to the three different KF-based solutions. The proposed Mixture PF with velocity, pitch, and roll updates outperformed all the other solutions and exhibited an average improvement of approximately 64% over KF with the same updates, about 85% over KF with velocity updates only, and around 95% over KF without any updates during GPS outages.


Land vehicle navigation Particle filter Kalman filter GPS Inertial sensors MEMS-based IMU INS/GPS integration 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacques Georgy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tashfeen Karamat
    • 3
  • Umar Iqbal
    • 3
  • Aboelmagd Noureldin
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Trusted Positioning Inc.CalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Computer and Systems Engineering DepartmentAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  3. 3.NavINST-Navigation and Instrumentation Research Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  4. 4.NavINST-Navigation and Instrumentation Research Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentRoyal Military College of CanadaKingstonCanada

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