Advertisement

GPS Solutions

, 13:191 | Cite as

Carrier phase wind-up in GPS reflectometry

  • Georg BeyerleEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Changes in GPS transmitter and receiver antenna orientations induce variations in observed carrier phase values. An analytic formula for this well-known carrier phase wind-up correction is derived which generalizes a previous result. In addition, it is shown that in GPS reflectometry the wind-up values of direct and coherently reflected rays may differ by up to several centimeters. The results are discussed on the basis of simulated measurements.

Keywords

GPS Carrier phase wind-up Reflectometry 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Helpful comments and suggestions by my colleagues at GFZ, Antonio Rius (IEEC, Barcelona) and an anonymous reviewer are gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Anderson KD (2000) Determination of water level and tides using interferometric observations of GPS signals. J Atmos Ocean Tech 17(8):1118–1127. doi: 10.1175/1520-0426 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bar-Sever YE (1996) A new model for GPS yaw attitude. J Geod 70(11):714–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beutler G et al (2007) Bernese GPS software version 5.0, Tech. rep., Astronomical Institute, University of BernGoogle Scholar
  4. Born M, Wolf E (1980) Principles of optics. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Bronstein IN, Semendjajew KA (1981) Taschenbuch der Mathematik, Verlag Harri Deutsch, ThunGoogle Scholar
  6. Cardellach E, Ribó S, Rius A (2006) Technical note on polarimetric phase interferometry (POPI), Tech. Rep. http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0606099
  7. García-Fernández M, Markgraf M, Montenbruck O (2008) Spin rate estimation of sounding rockets using GPS wind-up. GPS Solut 12(3):155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hecht E, Zajac A (1997) Optics. Addison Wesley, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  9. Jackson JD (1999) Classical electrodynamics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim D, Serrano L, Langley R (2006) Phase wind-up analysis: assessing real-time kinematic performance. GPS World 17(9):58–64Google Scholar
  11. Martìn-Neira M, Caparrini M, Font-Rosello J, Lannelongue S, Vallmitjana CS (2001) The PARIS concept: an experimental demonstration of sea surface altimetry using GPS reflected signals. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 39(1):142–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Misra P, Enge P (2006) Global positioning system: signals, measurements, and performance. Ganga-Jamuna Press, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  13. Montenbruck O, García-Fernández M, Yoon Y, Schön S, Jäggi A (2008) Antenna phase center calibration for precise positioning of LEO satellites, GPS Solut. 12, publ. online. doi: 10.1007/s10291-008-0094-z
  14. Schmid R, Steigenberger P, Gendt G, Ge M, Rothacher M (2007) Generation of a consistent absolute phase-center correction model for GPS receiver and satellite antennas. J Geod 81(12):781–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tetewsky AK, Mullen FE (1997) Carrier phase wrap-up induced by rotating GPS antennas. GPS World 8(2):51–57Google Scholar
  16. Treuhaft RN, Lowe ST, Zuffada C, Chao Y (2001) 2-cm GPS altimetry over Crater lake. Geophys Res Lett 22(23):4343–4346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wu JT, Wu SC, Hajj GA, Bertiger WI, Lichten SM (1993) Effects of antenna orientation on GPS carrier phase. Manuscripta Geodaetica 18(2):91–98Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GFZ German Research Centre for GeosciencesPotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations