GPS Solutions

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 173–181 | Cite as

Integrity of an integrated GPS/INS system in the presence of slowly growing errors. Part I: A critical review

  • Umar I. Bhatti
  • Washington Y. OchiengEmail author
  • Shaojun Feng
Original Article


This paper (the first part of two to be published in this journal) presents the process and results of a critical review of the integrated GPS and inertial navigation system (INS) architectures, the corresponding failure modes and the existing integrity monitoring methods. The paper concludes that tightly coupled GPS/INS systems have the highest potential for detecting slowly growing errors (SGEs). This is due to access to pseudorange measurements and a relatively simpler configuration compared to the other architectures. The second paper (Part II) takes this further and carries out a detailed characterisation of the performance of the current integrity algorithms for tightly coupled systems and develops a new algorithm that detects SGEs faster than the current methods.


GPS GNSS INS Integrity 



The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Pakistan, Imperial College London and Dr Imran Iqbal Bhatti.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umar I. Bhatti
    • 1
  • Washington Y. Ochieng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shaojun Feng
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Transport StudiesImperial College LondonLondonUK

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