GPS Solutions

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 283–293 | Cite as

Absolute phase center corrections of satellite and receiver antennas

Impact on global GPS solutions and estimation of azimuthal phase center variations of the satellite antenna
  • Ralf Schmid
  • Markus Rothacher
  • Daniela Thaller
  • Peter Steigenberger
Original Article

Abstract

Results of the estimation of azimuth-dependent phase center variations (PCVs) of GPS satellite antennas using global GPS data are presented. Significant variations of up to ±3–4 mm that are demonstrated show excellent repeatability over eight years. The application of the azimuthal PCVs besides the nadir-dependent ones will lead to a further reduction in systematic antenna effects. In addition, the paper focuses on the benefit of a possible transition from relative to absolute PCVs. Apart from systematic changes in the global station coordinates, one can expect the GPS results to be less dependent on the elevation cut-off angle. This, together with the significant reduction of tropospheric zenith delay biases between GPS and VLBI, stands for an important step toward more consistency between different space geodetic techniques.

Keywords

Satellite antenna Phase center variations Tropospheric zenith delay Elevation cut-off 

References

  1. Aparicio M, Brodie P, Doyle L, Rajan J, Torrione P (1995) GPS satellite and payload. In: Parkinson BW, Spilker JJ (eds) Global positioning system: theory and applications, vol I. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Washington, pp 209–244Google Scholar
  2. Bouma HR (2002) Ground-based GPS in climate research. Technical report no. 456L, licentiate thesis at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, GöteborgGoogle Scholar
  3. Czopek FM, Shollenberger S (1993) Description and performance of the GPS Block I and II L-Band antenna and link budget. In: Proceedings of ION GPS-93, The Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, pp 37–43Google Scholar
  4. Degnan JJ, Pavlis EC (1994) Laser ranging to GPS satellites with centimeter accuracy. GPS World 5(9) 62–70Google Scholar
  5. Elgered G, Haas R (2003) The geodetic VLBI network station at the Onsala space observatory—activities during 2002. In: Schwegmann W, Thorandt V (eds) Proceedings of the 16th Working Meeting on European VLBI for Geodesy and Astrometry, Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, Frankfurt/Leipzig, pp 61–66Google Scholar
  6. Elósegui P, Davis JL, Jaldehag RTK, Johansson JM, Niell AE, Shapiro II (1995) Geodesy using the global positioning system: the effects of signal scattering on estimates of site position. J Geophys Res 100(B6):9921–9934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ge M, Gendt G (2005) Estimation and validation of the IGS absolute antenna phase center variations. In: Meindl M (ed) Proceedings of the IGS Workshop and Symposium 2004 (in press)Google Scholar
  8. Haas R, Elgered G, Gradinarsky L, Johansson J (2003) Assessing long term trends in the atmospheric water vapor content by combining data from VLBI, GPS, radiosondes and microwave radiometry. In: Schwegmann W, Thorandt V (eds) Proceedings of the 16th working meeting on European VLBI for geodesy and astrometry, Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, Frankfurt/Leipzig, pp 279–288Google Scholar
  9. Haines B, Bar-Sever Y, Bertiger W, Desai S, Willis P (2004) One-centimeter orbit determination for Jason-1: new GPS-based strategies. Marine Geodesy 27(1–2): 299–318. DOI 10.1080/01490410490465300Google Scholar
  10. Hatanaka Y, Sawada M, Horita A, Kusaka M, Johnson JM, Rocken C (2001) Calibration of antenna-radome and monument-multipath effect of GEONET—part 2: evaluation of the phase map by GEONET data. Earth Planets Space 53(1):23–30Google Scholar
  11. Hugentobler U, Schaer S, Fridez P (2001) Bernese GPS Software, version 4.2. Astronomical Institute, University of BernGoogle Scholar
  12. Mader GL (1999) GPS antenna calibration at the National Geodetic Survey. GPS solutions 3(1):50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mader GL, Czopek FM (2002) The Block IIA satellite—calibrating antenna phase centers. GPS World 13(5):40–46Google Scholar
  14. Rothacher M (2001) Comparison of absolute and relative antenna phase center variations. GPS solutions 4(4):55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rummel R, Drewes H, Bosch W, Hornik H (2000) Towards an Integrated Global Geodetic Observing System (IGGOS). International Association of Geodesy Symposia, Vol. 120, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 1–261Google Scholar
  16. Rummel R, Drewes H, Beutler G (2002) Integrated Global Geodetic Observing System (IGGOS): a candidate IAG project. In: Adam J, Schwarz K-P (eds) Vistas for geodesy in the new millennium. International Association of Geodesy Symposia, Vol 125. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 609–614Google Scholar
  17. Saastamoinen J (1973) Contribution to the theory of atmospheric refraction. Bulletin Géodésique 107:13–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schmid R, Rothacher M (2003) Estimation of elevation-dependent satellite antenna phase center variations of GPS satellites. Journal of Geodesy 77(7–8):440–446. DOI 10.1007/s00190-003-0339-0Google Scholar
  19. Schmid R, Mader GL, Herring TA (2005) From relative to absolute antenna phase center corrections. In: Meindl M (ed) Proceedings of the IGS Workshop and Symposium 2004 (in press)Google Scholar
  20. Schuh H, Böhm J (2003) Determination of tropospheric parameters within the new IVS Pilot Project. In: Schwegmann W, Thorandt V (eds) Proceedings of the 16th working meeting on European VLBI for geodesy and astrometry, Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, Frankfurt/Leipzig, pp 257–264Google Scholar
  21. Steigenberger P, Rothacher M, Dietrich R, Rülke A, Fritsche M (2004) Reprocessing of a global GPS network. Geophysical research abstracts, vol 6, 07649, European Geosciences UnionGoogle Scholar
  22. Titov O, Tesmer V, Böhm J (2001) OCCAM 5.0 users guide, AUSLIG technical report 7. AUSLIG, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  23. Wübbena G, Schmitz M, Menge F, Böder V, Seeber G (2000) Automated absolute field calibration of GPS antennas in real-time. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS Meeting 2000, Salt Lake CityGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralf Schmid
    • 1
  • Markus Rothacher
    • 2
  • Daniela Thaller
    • 2
  • Peter Steigenberger
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Astronomische und Physikalische GeodäsieTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  2. 2.Forschungseinrichtung SatellitengeodäsieTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations