GPS Solutions

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 23–32 | Cite as

A note on frame transformations with applications to geodetic datums

Original Article


Rigorous equations in compact symbolic matrix notation are introduced to transform coordinates and velocities between ITRF frames and modern GPS-based geocentric geodetic datums. The theory is general but, after neglecting higher than second-order terms, it is shown that the equations revert to the formulation currently applied in most major continental datums. We discuss several examples: the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83), the European Terrestrial Reference System of 1989 (ETRS89), the Geodetic Datum of Australia of 1994 (GDA94), and the South American Geocentric Reference System (SIRGAS).



The help of S.A. Hilla, D.G. Milbert, C.R. Schwarz, and R.A. Snay whose comments significantly improved the contents and readability of the manuscript are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Geodetic SurveyNOS NOAA, N/NGS22 #8825Silver SpringUSA

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