4OR

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 341–360 | Cite as

Shared mobility systems

  • Gilbert Laporte
  • Frédéric Meunier
  • Roberto Wolfler Calvo
Invited Survey

Abstract

Shared mobility systems for bicycles and cars have grown in popularity in recent years and have attracted the attention of the operational research community. Researchers have investigated several problems arising at the strategic, tactical and operational levels. This survey paper classifies the relevant literature under five main headings: station location, fleet dimensioning, station inventory, rebalancing incentives, and vehicle repositioning. It closes with some open research questions.

Keywords

Survey Shared mobility systems Bicycle and car sharing Fleet dimensioning Inventory rebalancing Vehicle repositioning 

Mathematics Subject Classification

90–02 90B06 90B80 90C90 90B05 

References

  1. Angeloudis P, Hu J, Bell MGH (2014) A strategic repositioning algorithm for bicycle-sharing scheme. Transp A Transp Sci 10:759–774Google Scholar
  2. Benchimol M, Benchimol P, Chappert B, de la Taille A, Laroche F, Meunier F, Robinet L (2011) Balancing the stations of a self service “bike hire” system. RAIRO Oper Res 45:37–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berman B, Jerram L, Gartner J (2013) Casharing programs. Navigant Consulting, 3Q. http://www.navigantresearch.com
  4. Bruglieri M, Colorni A, Luè A (2014) The relocation problem for the one-way electricvehicle sharing. Networks 64:292–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caggiani L, Ottomanelli M (2013) A dynamic simulation based model for optimal fleet repositioning in bike-sharing systems. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 87:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chemla D (2012) Algorithms for optimized shared transport systems. Ph.D. thesis, Université Paris-EstGoogle Scholar
  7. Chemla D, Meunier F, Pradeau T, Wolfler Calvo R, Yahiaoui H (2013a) Self-service bike sharing systems: simulation, repositioning, pricing. Technical report (Hyper Articles en Ligne (HAL))Google Scholar
  8. Chemla D, Meunier F, Wolfler Calvo R (2013b) Bike-sharing systems. Discrete Optim 10:120–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chow JYJ, Sayarshad HR (2014) Symbiotic network design strategies in the presence of coexisting transportation networks. Transp Res Part B Methodol 62:13–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colson B, Marcotte P, Savard G (2007) An overview of bilevel optimization. Ann Oper Res 153:235–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cômes E, Oukhellou L (2014) Model-based count series clustering for bike sharing system usage mining, a case study with the Vélib’ system of Paris. ACM transactions on intelligent systems and technology 5Google Scholar
  12. Contardo C, Morency C, Rousseau L-M (2012) Balancing a dynamic public bike-sharing system. Technical report, CIRRELTGoogle Scholar
  13. de A. Correia GH, Antunes AP (2012) Optimization approach to depot location and trip selection in one-way car sharing systems. Transp Res Part E 48:233–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dell’Amico M, Hadjicostantinou E, Iori M, Novellani S (2014) The bike sharing rebalancing problem: mathematical formulations and benchmark instances. Omega 45:7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeMaio P (2009) Bike-sharing: history, impacts, models of prevision, and future. J Pub Transp 12:41–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Di Febbraro A, Sacco N, Saeednia M (2012) One way car sharing solving the relocation problem. Transp Res Rec 2319:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Di Gaspero L, Rendl A, Urli T (2013a) A hybrid ACO+CP for balancing bike sharing systems. In: Hybrid metaheuristics, 8th international workshop. Springer, Berlin, pp 198–212Google Scholar
  18. Di Gaspero L, Rendl A, Urli T (2013b) Constraint-based approaches for balancing bike sharing systems. Principles and practice of constraint programming. 19th international conference. Springer, Berlin, pp 758–773Google Scholar
  19. Efthymiou D, Antoniou C, Waddell P (2013) Factors affecting the adoption of vehicle sharing systems by young drivers. Transp Policy 9:64–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Erdoğan G, Battarra M, Wolfler Calvo R (2015) An exact algorithm for the static rebalancing problem arising in bicycle sharing systems. Eur J Oper Res 245:667–679Google Scholar
  21. Erdoğan G, Laporte G, Wolfler Calvo R (2014) The static bicycle relocation problem with demand intervals. Eur J Oper Res 238:451–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forma IA, Raviv T, Tzur M (2015) A 3-step math heuristic for the static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems. Transp Res Part B 71:230–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fricker C, Gast N (2015) Incentives and redistribution in homogeneous bike-sharing systems with stations of finite capacity. EURO J Transp LogistGoogle Scholar
  24. George DK, Xia CH (2011) Fleet-sizing and service availability for a vehicle rental system via closed queueing networks. Eur J Oper Res 211:198–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaspi M, Raviv T, Tzur M (2014a) Parking reservation policies in one-way vehicle sharing systems. Transp Res Part B 62:35–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaspi M, Raviv T, Tzur M, Galili H (2014b) Regulating vehicle sharing systems through parking reservation policies: analysis and performance bounds. Technical report, working paper—Tel Aviv UniversityGoogle Scholar
  27. Kek AGH, Cheu RL, Meng Q, Fung CH (2009) A decision support system for vehicle relocation operations in carsharing systems. Transp Res Part E 45:149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kloimüllner C, Papazek P, Hu B, Raidl GR (2014) Balancing bicycle sharing systems: an approach for the dynamic case. In: Evolutionary computation in combinatorial optimisation—14th European conference, EvoCOP 2014, Granada, Spain, April 23–25, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, pp 73–84Google Scholar
  29. Krumke SO, Quillot A, Wagler AK, Wegener J-T (2013) Models and algorithms for carsharing systems and related problems. Electron Notes Discrete Math 44:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kumar A, Teo KM, Odoni AR (2013) A systems perspective of cycling and bike-sharing systems in urban mobility. Technical report, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  31. Kumar VP, Bierlaire M (2012) Optimizing locations for a vehicle sharing system. In: Proceedings of the Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC), pp 1–30, Ascona, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  32. Lin J-R, Yang T-H (2011) Strategic design of public bicycle sharing systems with service level constraints. Transp Res Part E 47:284–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lin J-R, Yang T-H, Chang Y-C (2013) A hub location inventory model for bicycle sharing system design: formulation and solution. Comput Ind Eng 65:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lu C-C (2013) Robust multi-period fleet allocation models for bike-sharing systems. Netw Spat Econ 13:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Martens K (2007) Promoting bike-and-ride: the Dutch experience. Transp Res Part A 41:326–338Google Scholar
  36. Martinez LM, Caetano L, Eiró T, Cruz F (2012) An optimization algorithm to establish the location of stations of a mixed fleet biking system: an application to the city of Lisbon. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 54:513–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meunier F (2014) Systèmes de véhicules partagés: des défis pour la RO. Bulletin de la ROADEF, pp 9–13Google Scholar
  38. Midgley P (2011) Bicycle-sharing schemes: enhancing sustainable mobility in urban areas. Technical report, Commission on Sustainable Development UN Departement of Economic and Social AffairsGoogle Scholar
  39. Nair R, Miller-Hooks E (2011) Fleet management for vehicle sharing operations. Transp Sci 45:524–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nair R, Miller-Hooks E (2014) Equilibrium network design of shared-vehicle systems. Eur J Oper Res 235:47–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pfrommer J, Warrington J, Schildbach G, Morari M (2014) Dynamic vehicle redistribution and online price incentives in shared mobility systems. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 99:1–12Google Scholar
  42. Rainer-Harbach M, Papazek P, Raidl GR, Hu B, Kloimüllner C (2014) PILOT, GRASP, and VNS approaches for the static balancing of bicycle sharing systems. J Glob Optim 63(3):597–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Raviv T, Kolka O (2013) Optimal inventory management of a bike-sharing station. IEEE Trans 45:1077–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Raviv T, Tzur M, Forma IA (2013) Static repositioning in a bike-sharing system: models and solution approaches. EURO J Transp Logist 2:187–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sayarshad H, Tavassoli S, Zhao F (2012) Multi-periodic optimization formulation for bike planning and bike utilization. Appl Math Model 36:4944–4951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schuijbroek J, Hampshire RC, van Hoeve W-J (2013) Inventory rebalancing and vehicle routing in bike sharing systems. Technical report, Tepper School of BusinessGoogle Scholar
  47. Shaheen SA, Cohen AP (2007) Growth in worldwide carsharing an international comparison. Transp Res Rec 1992:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shu J, Chou MC, Liu Q, Teo C-P, Wang I-L (2013) Models for effective deployment and redistribution for bicycles within public bicyle-sharing systems. Oper Res 61:1346–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Singla A, Santoni M, Bartók G, Mukerji P, Meenen M, Krause A (2015) Incentivizing users for balancing bike sharing systems. In: Proceedings of conference on artificial intelligence (AAAI), pp 723–729Google Scholar
  50. Spiess H, Florian M (1989) Optimal strategies: a new assignment model for transit networks. Transp Res Part B 23:83–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vogel P, Greiser T, Mattfeld DC (2011) Understanding bike-sharing systems using data mining: exploring activity patterns. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci 20:514–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vogel P, Saavedra BAN, Mattfeld DC (2014) A hybrid metaheuristic to solve the resource allocation problem in bike sharing systems. In: Lecture notes in computer science, vol 8457, pp 16–29Google Scholar
  53. Waserhole A (2013) Vehicle sharing systems pricing optimization. Ph.D. thesis, Université de GrenobleGoogle Scholar
  54. Waserhole A, Jost V, Brauner N (2013a) Vehicle sharing system optimization: scenario based approach. Technical report, Université de GrenobleGoogle Scholar
  55. Waserhole A, Jost V, Brauner N (2013b) Vehicle sharing system pricing regulation: a fluid approximation. Technical report, Université de GrenobleGoogle Scholar
  56. Wikipedia. Bicycle-sharing system, 2015a. Last accessed October 21st, 2015Google Scholar
  57. Wikipedia. Carsharing, 2015b. Last accessed October 21st, 2015Google Scholar
  58. Zipcar. les villes zipcar, 2015. Last accessed October 21st, 2015Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilbert Laporte
    • 1
  • Frédéric Meunier
    • 2
  • Roberto Wolfler Calvo
    • 3
  1. 1.3000 chemin de la Côte-Sainte-CatherineHEC MontréalMontréalCanada
  2. 2.CERMICS (ENPC)Université Paris EstMarne-la-ValléeFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire d’Informatique de Paris Nord (UMR 7030), sorbonne paris citéUniversité Paris 13VilletaneuseFrance

Personalised recommendations