Clinical Autonomic Research

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 331–352

Catecholamines 101

Review Article

Abstract

This review of clinical catecholamine neurochemistry is based on the Streeten Memorial Lecture at the 19th annual meeting of the American Autonomic Society and lectures at a satellite of the 6th Congress of the International Society of Autonomic Neuroscience. Here I provide historical perspective, describe sources and meanings of plasma levels of catecholamines and their metabolites, present a model of a sympathetic noradrenergic neuron that conveys how particular aspects of sympathetic nervous function affect plasma levels of catecholamines and their metabolites, and apply the model to understand plasma neurochemical patterns associated with some drugs and disease states.

Keywords

Catecholamine Norepinephrine Epinephrine Dopamine Autonomic 

References

  1. 1.
    Aggarwal A, Esler MD, Socratous F, Kaye DM (2001) Evidence for functional presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors and their down-regulation in human heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 37:1246–1251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akashi YJ, Goldstein DS, Barbaro G, Ueyama T (2008) Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a new form of acute, reversible heart failure. Circulation 118:2754–2762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alvarenga ME, Richards JC, Lambert G, Esler MD (2006) Psychophysiological mechanisms in panic disorder: a correlative analysis of noradrenaline spillover, neuronal noradrenaline reuptake, power spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and psychological variables. Psychosom Med 68:8–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Axelrod FB, Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Berlin D, Kopin IJ (1996) Pattern of plasma levels of catecholamines in familial dysautonomia. Clin Auton Res 6:205–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Biaggioni I, Goldstein DS, Atkinson T, Robertson D (1990) Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase deficiency in humans. Neurology 40:370–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biaggioni I, Robertson D (1987) Endogenous restoration of noradrenaline by precursor therapy in dopamine-beta-hydroxylase deficiency. Lancet 2:1170–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blandini F, Nappi G, Fancellu R, Mangiagalli A, Samuele A, Riboldazzi G, Calandrella D, Pacchetti C, Bono G, Martignoni E (2003) Modifications of plasma and platelet levels of l-DOPA and its direct metabolites during treatment with tolcapone or entacapone in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm 110:911–922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blombery PA, Kopin IJ, Gordon EK, Markey SP, Ebert MH (1980) Conversion of MHPG to vanillylmandelic acid. Implications for the importance of urinary MHPG. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37:1095–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bornstein S, Breidert M, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Kloos B, Scherbaum W (1995) Plasma catecholamines in patients with Addison’s disease. Clin Endocrinol 42:215–218Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bruce S, Tack C, Patel J, Pacak K, Goldstein DS (2002) Local sympathetic function in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue assessed by microdialysis. Clin Auton Res 12:13–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buu NT, Lussier C (1990) Origin of dopamine in the rat adrenal cortex. Am J Physiol 258:F287–F291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buu NT, Angers M, Chevalier D, Kuchel O (1984) A new method for the simultaneous analysis of free and sulfoconjugated normetanephrine, metanephrine, and 3-methoxytyramine in human urine by HPLC with electrochemical detection. J Lab Clin Med 104:425–432Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chang PC, Grossman E, Kopin IJ, Goldstein DS (1994) On the existence of functional beta-adrenoceptors on vascular sympathetic nerve endings in the human forearm. J Hypertens 12:681–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chidsey CA, Braunwald E, Morow AG, Mason DT (1963) Myocardial norepinephrine concentration in man. Effects of reserpine and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 269:653–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cohn JN, Levine BT, Olivari MT (1984) Plasma norepinephrine as a guide to prognosis in patients with congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 311:819–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dietz NM, Halliwill JR, Spielmann JM, Lawler LA, Papouchado BG, Eickhoff TJ, Joyner MJ (1997) Sympathetic withdrawal and forearm vasodilation during vasovagal syncope in humans. J Appl Physiol 82:1785–1793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eiden LE, Schafer MK, Weihe E, Schutz B (2004) The vesicular amine transporter family (SLC18): amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated exocytotic secretion of monoamines and acetylcholine. Pflugers Arch 447:636–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eisenhofer G, Aneman A, Friberg P, Hooper D, Fandriks L, Lonroth H, Hunyady B, Mezey E (1997) Substantial production of dopamine in the human gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:3864–3871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Eisenhofer G, Aneman A, Hooper D, Rundqvist B, Friberg P (1996) Mesenteric organ production, hepatic metabolism, and renal elimination of norepinephrine and its metabolites in humans. J Neurochem 66:1565–1573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eisenhofer G, Coughtrie MWH, Goldstein DS (1999) Dopamine sulfate: an enigma resolved. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 26:S41–S53Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eisenhofer G, Esler MD, Goldstein DS, Kopin IJ (1991) Neuronal uptake, metabolism, and release of tritium-labeled norepinephrine during assessment of its plasma kinetics. Am J Physiol 261:E505–E515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eisenhofer G, Esler MD, Meredith IT, Dart A, Cannon RO 3rd, Quyyumi AA, Lambert G, Chin J, Jennings GL, Goldstein DS (1992) Sympathetic nervous function in human heart as assessed by cardiac spillovers of dihydroxyphenylglycol and norepinephrine. Circulation 85:1775–1785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eisenhofer G, Friberg P, Goldstein DS, Esler M (1995) Differential actions of desipramine on sympathoadrenal release of noradrenaline and adrenaline. Br J Clin Pharmacol 40:263–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Eisenhofer G, Friberg P, Rundqvist B, Quyyumi AA, Lambert G, Kaye DM, Kopin IJ, Goldstein DS, Esler MD (1996) Cardiac sympathetic nerve function in congestive heart failure. Circulation 93:1667–1676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eisenhofer G, Goldstein DS, Kopin IJ (1989) Plasma dihydroxyphenylglycol for estimation of noradrenaline neuronal reuptake in the sympathetic nervous system in vivo. Clin Sci 76:171–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eisenhofer G, Goldstein DS, Ropchak TG, Nguyen HQ, Keiser HR, Kopin IJ (1988) Source and physiological significance of plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. J Auton Nerv Syst 24:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eisenhofer G, Goldstein DS, Stull R, Keiser HR, Sunderland T, Murphy DL, Kopin IJ (1986) Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, catecholamines, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in plasma, and their responses to inhibition of monoamine oxidase. Clin Chem 32:2030–2033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Eisenhofer G, Goldstein DS, Walther MM, Friberg P, Lenders JW, Keiser HR, Pacak K (2003) Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: how to distinguish true- from false-positive test results. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2656–2666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ, Goldstein DS (2004) Catecholamine metabolism: a contemporary view with implications for physiology and medicine. Pharmacol Rev 56:331–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eisenhofer G, Rundqvist B, Aneman A, Friberg P, Dakak N, Kopin IJ, Jacobs MC, Lenders JW (1995) Regional release and removal of catecholamines and extraneuronal metabolism to metanephrines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:3009–3017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Eisenhofer G, Walther M, Huynh T-T et al (2001) Pheochromocytomas in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 display distinct biochemical and clinical phenotypes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1999–2008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eisenhofer G, Esler MD, Cox HS et al (1990) Differences in the neuronal removal of circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70:1710–1720Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Elchisak MA, Polinsky RJ, Ebert MH, Kopin IJ (1982) Kinetics of homovanillic acid and determination of its production rate in humans. J Neurochem 38:380–385 Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Esler M (1982) Assessment of sympathetic nervous function in humans from noradrenaline plasma kinetics. Clin Sci 62:247–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Esler M (1993) Clinical application of noradrenaline spillover methodology: delineation of regional human sympathetic nervous responses. Pharmacol Toxicol 73:243–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Esler MD, Turner AG, Kaye DM, Thompson JM, Kingwell BA, Morris M, Lambert GW, Jennings GL, Cox HS, Seals DR (1995) Aging effects on human sympathetic neuronal function. Am J Physiol 268:R278–R285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Esler MD, Wallin G, Dorward PK, Eisenhofer G, Westerman R, Meredith I, Lambert G, Cox HS, Jennings G (1991) Effects of desipramine on sympathetic nerve firing and norepinephrine spillover to plasma in humans. Am J Physiol 260:R817–R823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fahn S (1983) Long-term treatment of tardive dyskinesia with presynaptically acting dopamine-depleting agents. Adv Neurol 37:267–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Faraj BA, Camp VM, Murray DR, Kutner M, Hearn J, Nixon D (1986) Plasma l-DOPA in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Clin Chem 32:159–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Garland EM, Raj SR, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D (2007) The hemodynamic and neurohumoral phenotype of postural tachycardia syndrome. Neurology 69:790–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Goldstein DS, Cannon RO, Quyyumi A, Chang P, Duncan M, Brush JE Jr, Eisenhofer G (1991) Regional extraction of circulating norepinephrine, DOPA, and dihydroxyphenylglycol in humans. J Auton Nerv Syst 34:17–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ (2003) Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 305:800–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Stull R, Folio CJ, Keiser HR, Kopin IJ (1988) Plasma dihydroxyphenylglycol and the intraneuronal disposition of norepinephrine in humans. J Clin Investig 81:213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goldstein DS, Eldadah B, Holmes C, Pechnik S, Moak J, Sharabi Y (2005) Neurocirculatory abnormalities in chronic orthostatic intolerance. Circulation 111:839–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goldstein DS, Eldadah B, Sharabi Y, Axelrod FB (2008) Cardiac sympathetic hypo-innervation in familial dysautonomia. Clin Auton Res 18:115–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goldstein DS, Feuerstein G, Izzo JL Jr, Kopin IJ, Keiser HR (1981) Validity and reliability of liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for measuring plasma levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine in man. Life Sci 28:467–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldstein DS, Hahn S-H, Holmes C, Tifft C, Harvey-White J, Milstien S, Kaufman S (1995) Monoaminergic effects of folinic acid, l-DOPA, and 5-hydroxytryptophan in dihydropteridine reductase deficiency. J Neurochem 64:2810–2813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C (1997) Metabolic fate of the sympathoneural imaging agent 6-[18F]fluorodopamine in humans. Clin Exp Hypertens 19:155–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C (2008) Neuronal source of plasma dopamine. Clin Chem 54:1864–1871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Axelrod FB (2008) Plasma catechols in familial dysautonomia: a long-term follow-up study. Neurochem Res 33:1889–1893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Dendi R, Li ST, Brentzel S, Vernino S (2002) Pandysautonomia associated with impaired ganglionic neurotransmission and circulating antibody to the neuronal nicotinic receptor. Clin Auton Res 12:281–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Frank SM, Dendi R, Cannon RO 3rd, Sharabi Y, Esler MD, Eisenhofer G (2002) Cardiac sympathetic dysautonomia in chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes. Circulation 106:2358–2365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Frank SM, Naqibuddin M, Dendi R, Snader S, Calkins H (2003) Sympathoadrenal imbalance before neurocardiogenic syncope. Am J Cardiol 91:53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Imrich R (2009) Clinical laboratory evaluation of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy: preliminary observations. Auton Neurosci 146(1–2):18–21 (Special Edition)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Li ST, Bruce S, Metman LV, Cannon RO 3rd (2000) Cardiac sympathetic denervation in Parkinson disease. Ann Intern Med 133:338–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Sewell L, Pechnik S, Kopin IJ (2010) Effects of carbidopa and entacapone on the metabolic fate of the norepinephrine pro-drug l-DOPS. J Clin Pharmacol (in press)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Sharabi Y, Brentzel S, Eisenhofer G (2003) Plasma levels of catechols and metanephrines in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Neurology 60:1327–1332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Goldstein DS, Kopin IJ (2008) Adrenomedullary, adrenocortical, and sympathoneural responses to stressors: a meta-analysis. Endocr Regul 42:111–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goldstein DS, Levinson PD, Zimlichman R, Pitterman A, Stull R, Keiser HR (1985) Clonidine suppression testing in essential hypertension. Ann Intern Med 102:42–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Goldstein DS, Nurnberger J Jr, Simmons S, Gershon ES, Polinsky R, Keiser HR (1983) Effects of injected sympathomimetic amines on plasma catecholamines and circulatory variables in man. Life Sci 32:1057–1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Goldstein DS, Polinsky RJ, Garty M, Robertson D, Brown RT, Biaggioni I, Stull R, Kopin IJ (1989) Patterns of plasma levels of catechols in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Ann Neurol 26:558–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Goldstein DS, Stull R, Eisenhofer G, Sisson JC, Weder A, Averbuch SD, Keiser HR (1986) Plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) and catecholamines in neuroblastoma or pheochromocytoma. Ann Intern Med 105:887–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Goldstein DS, Swoboda KJ, Miles JM, Coppack SW, Aneman A, Holmes C, Lamensdorf I, Eisenhofer G (1999) Sources and physiological significance of plasma dopamine sulfate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:2523–2531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Goldstein DS, Udelsman R, Eisenhofer G, Stull R, Keiser HR, Kopin IJ (1987) Neuronal source of plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64:856–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Goldstein DS, Zimlichman R, Stull R, Keiser HR (1986) Plasma catecholamine and hemodynamic responses during isoproterenol infusions in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 40:233–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gonzalez-Trapaga JL, Nelesen RA, Dimsdale JE, Mills PJ, Kennedy B, Parmer RJ, Ziegler MG (2000) Plasma epinephrine levels in hypertension and across gender and ethnicity. Life Sci 66:2383–2392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Grossman E, Goldstein DS, Hoffman A, Keiser HR (1991) Glucagon and clonidine testing in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Hypertension 17:733–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Grossman E, Rea RF, Hoffman A, Goldstein DS (1991) Yohimbine increases sympathetic nerve activity and norepinephrine spillover in normal volunteers. Am J Physiol 260:R142–R147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gustafson AB, Kalkhoff RK (1982) Influence of sex and obesity on plasma catecholamine response to isometric exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:703–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hilz MJ, Axelrod FB, Bickel A, Stemper B, Brys M, Wendelschafer-Crabb G, Kennedy WR (2004) Assessing function and pathology in familial dysautonomia: assessment of temperature perception, sweating and cutaneous innervation. Brain 127:2090–2098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Holmes C, Moak J, Eldadah B, Zimmerly E, Sharabi Y, Goldstein DS (2005) Dopamine contamination of infused tyramine. Clin Chem 51:1733–1735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hovevey-Sion D, Kopin IJ, Stull RW, Goldstein DS (1989) Effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitors on levels of catechols and homovanillic acid in striatum and plasma. Neuropharmacology 28:791–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Illi A, Sundberg S, Ojala-Karlsson P, Korhonen P, Scheinin M, Gordin A (1995) The effect of entacapone on the disposition and hemodynamic effects of intravenous isoproterenol and epinephrine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 58:221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ishimitsu T, Hirose S (1985) Determination of m- and p-O-methylated products of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine using high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Anal Biochem 150:300–308Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Isnard R, Pousset F, Trochu J, Chafirovskaia O, Carayon A, Golmard J, Lechat P, Thomas D, Bouhour J, Komajda M (2000) Prognostic value of neurohormonal activation and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic heart failure. Am J Cardiol 86:417–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jacob G, Costa F, Shannon JR, Robertson RM, Wathen M, Stein M, Biaggioni I, Ertl A, Black B, Robertson D (2000) The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome. N Engl J Med 343:1008–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jacob G, Costa F, Vincent S, Robertson D, Biaggioni I (2003) Neurovascular dissociation with paradoxical forearm vasodilation during systemic tyramine administration. Circulation 107:2475–2479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Jacob G, Gamboa A, Diedrich A, Shibao C, Robertson D, Biaggioni I (2005) Tyramine-induced vasodilation mediated by dopamine contamination: a paradox resolved. Hypertension 46:355–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jacobsen TN, Grayburn PA, Snyder RW 2nd, Hansen J, Chavoshan B, Landau C, Lange RA, Hillis LD, Victor RG (1997) Effects of intranasal cocaine on sympathetic nerve discharge in humans. J Clin Investig 99:628–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jordan J, Shannon JR, Black BK, Lance RH, Squillante MD, Costa F, Robertson D (1998) N(N)-nicotinic blockade as an acute human model of autonomic failure. Hypertension 31:1178–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kaler SG, Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Salerno JA, Gahl WA (1993) Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid neurochemical pattern in Menkes disease. Ann Neurol 33:171–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kaler SG, Holmes CS, Goldstein DS, Tang J, Godwin SC, Donsante A, Liew CJ, Sato S, Patronas N (2008) Neonatal diagnosis and treatment of Menkes disease. N Engl J Med 358:605–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kaufmann H, Saadia D, Voustianiouk A, Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Yahr MD, Nardin R, Freeman R (2003) Norepinephrine precursor therapy in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Circulation 108:724–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Keranen T, Gordin A, Harjola VP, Karlsson M, Korpela K, Pentikainen PJ, Rita H, Seppala L, Wikberg T (1993) The effect of catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibition by entacapone on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of levodopa in healthy volunteers. Clin Neuropharmacol 16:145–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kopin IJ (1985) Catecholamine metabolism: basic aspects and clinical significance. Pharmacol Rev 37:333–364Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kopin IJ, Rundqvist B, Friberg P, Lenders J, Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G (1998) Different relationships of spillover to release of norepinephrine in human heart, kidneys, and forearm. Am J Physiol 275:R165–R173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kurz T, Richardt G, Seyfarth M, Schomig A (1996) Nonexocytotic noradrenaline release induced by pharmacological agents or anoxia in human cardiac tissue. Naunyn Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 354:7–16Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kvetnansky R, Armando I, Weise VK, Holmes C, Fukuhara K, Deka-Starosta A, Kopin IJ, Goldstein DS (1992) Plasma dopa responses during stress: dependence on sympathoneural activity and tyrosine hydroxylation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 261:899–909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kvetnansky R, Goldstein DS, Weise VK, Holmes C, Szemeredi K, Bagdy G, Kopin IJ (1992) Effects of handling or immobilization on plasma levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, catecholamines, and metabolites in rats. J Neurochem 58:2296–2302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lenders JW, Pacak K, Walther MM, Linehan WM, Mannelli M, Friberg P, Keiser HR, Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G (2002) Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best? JAMA 287:1427–1434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lenders JWM, Eisenhofer G, Abeling NGGM, Berger W, Murphy DL, Konings CH, Wagemakers LMB, Kopin IJ, Karoum F, van Gennip AH, Brunner HG (1996) Specific genetic deficiencies of the A and B isozymes of monoamine oxidase are characterized by distinct neurochemical and clinical phenotypes. J Clin Investig 97:1010–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Letellier S, Garnier JP, Spy J, Bousquet B (1997) Determination of the l-DOPA/l-tyrosine ratio in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Usefulness as a marker in metastatic malignant melanoma. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl 696:9–17Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Levinson PD, Goldstein DS, Munson PJ, Gill JR Jr, Keiser HR (1985) Endocrine, renal, and hemodynamic responses to graded dopamine infusions in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 60:821–826Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lonart G, Sudhof TC (2000) Assembly of SNARE core complexes prior to neurotransmitter release sets the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. J Biol Chem 275:27703–27707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mardh G, Sjoquist B, Anggard E (1982) Norepinephrine metabolism in man using deuterium labeling: turnover 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid. J Neurochem 38:1582–1587Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mayer AF, Schroeder C, Heusser K, Tank J, Diedrich A, Schmieder RE, Luft FC, Jordan J (2006) Influences of norepinephrine transporter function on the distribution of sympathetic activity in humans. Hypertension 48:120–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Meredith IT, Eisenhofer G, Lambert GW, Jennings GL, Thompson J, Esler MD (1992) Plasma norepinephrine responses to head-up tilt are misleading in autonomic failure. Hypertension 19:628–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Merke DP, Chrousos GP, Eisenhofer G, Weise M, Keil MF, Rogol AD, Van Wyk JJ, Bornstein SR (2000) Adrenomedullary dysplasia and hypofunction in patients with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency. N Engl J Med 343:1362–1368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Morillo CA, Eckberg DL, Ellenbogen KA, Beightol LA, Hoag JB, Tahvanainen KU, Kuusela TA, Diedrich AM (1997) Vagal and sympathetic mechanisms in patients with orthostatic vasovagal syncope. Circulation 96:2509–2513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Nutt JG, Woodward WR, Beckner RM, Stone CK, Berggren K, Carter JH, Gancher ST, Hammerstad JP, Gordin A (1994) Effect of peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of levodopa in parkinsonian patients. Neurology 44:913–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Oliver G, Schafer EA (1895) On the physiological action of extract of the suprarenal capsules. J Physiol 17:ix–xivGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pearson J, Brandeis L, Goldstein M (1979) Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in familial dysautonomia. Science 206:71–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pearson J, Gallo G, Gluck M, Axelrod F (1980) Renal disease in familial dysautonomia. Kidney Int 17:102–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pearson J, Pytel BA (1978) Quantitative studies of sympathetic ganglia and spinal cord intermedio-lateral gray columns in familial dysautonomia. J Neurol Sci 39:47–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Penttila J, Syvalahti E, Hinkka S, Kuusela T, Scheinin H (2001) The effects of amitriptyline, citalopram and reboxetine on autonomic nervous system. A randomised placebo-controlled study on healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 154:343–349Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Robertson D (1999) The epidemic of orthostatic tachycardia and orthostatic intolerance. Am J Med Sci 317:75–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Robertson D, Goldberg MR, Tung CS, Hollister AS, Robertson RM (1986) Use of alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonists and antagonists in the functional assessment of the sympathetic nervous system. J Clin Investig 78:576–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Schroeder C, Tank J, Boschmann M, Diedrich A, Sharma AM, Biaggioni I, Luft FC, Jordan J (2002) Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as a human model of orthostatic intolerance. Circulation 105:347–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Scriven AJI, Dollery CT, Murphy MB, Macquin I, Brown MJ (1983) Blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine concentrations after endogenous norepinephrine release by tyramine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 33:710–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Seals DR, Esler MD (2000) Human ageing and the sympathoadrenal system. J Physiol 528:407–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Senard JM, Valet P, Durrieu G, Berlan M, Tran MA, Montastruc JL, Rascol A, Montastruc P (1990) Adrenergic supersensitivity in parkinsonians with orthostatic hypotension. Eur J Clin Investig 20:613–619Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Shannon JR, Flattem NL, Jordan J, Jacob G, Black BK, Biaggioni I, Blakely RD, Robertson D (2000) Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency. N Engl J Med 342:541–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sharabi Y, Imrich R, Holmes C, Pechnik S, Goldstein DS (2008) Generalized and neurotransmitter-selective noradrenergic denervation in Parkinson’s disease with orthostatic hypotension. Mov Disord 23:1725–1732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Slaugenhaupt SA, Blumenfeld A, Gill SP, Leyne M, Mull J, Cuajungco MP, Liebert CB, Chadwick B, Idelson M, Reznik L, Robbins C, Makalowska I, Brownstein M, Krappmann D, Scheidereit C, Maayan C, Axelrod FB, Gusella JF (2001) Tissue-specific expression of a splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene causes familial dysautonomia. Am J Hum Genet 68:598–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Smith SE (1971) Cheese reaction and tyramine. Lancet 1:130–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sofuoglu M, Nelson D, Babb DA, Hatsukami DK (2001) Intravenous cocaine increases plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 68:455–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Steinsapir J, Carr AA, Prisant LM, Bransome ED Jr (1997) Metyrosine and pheochromocytoma. Arch Intern Med 157:901–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Sundberg S, Scheinin M, Illi A, Akkila J, Gordin A, Keranen T (1993) The effects of the COMT inhibitor entacapone on haemodynamics and peripheral catecholamine metabolism during exercise. Br J Clin Pharmacol 36:451–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Swoboda KJ, Hyland K, Goldstein DS, Kuban KC, Arnold LA, Holmes CS, Levy HL (1999) Clinical and therapeutic observations in aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. Neurology 53:1205–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tank J, Schroeder C, Diedrich A, Szczech E, Haertter S, Sharma AM, Luft FC, Jordan J (2003) Selective impairment in sympathetic vasomotor control with norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Circulation 107:2949–2954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Thomas JA, Marks BH (1978) Plasma norepinephrine in congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 41:233–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Thompson JM, O’Callaghan CJ, Kingwell BA, Lambert GW, Jennings GL, Esler MD (1995) Total norepinephrine spillover, muscle sympathetic nerve activity and heart-rate spectral analysis in a patient with dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency. J Auton Nerv Syst 55:198–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Vernino S, Low PA, Fealey RD, Stewart JD, Farrugia G, Lennon VA (2000) Autoantibodies to ganglionic acetylcholine receptors in autoimmune autonomic neuropathies. N Engl J Med 343:847–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Vincent HH, Man in’t Veld AJ, Boomsma F, Wenting GJ, Schalekamp MADH (1982) Elevated plasma noradrenaline in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 13:717–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Vincent S, Bieck PR, Garland EM, Loghin C, Bymaster FP, Black BK, Gonzales C, Potter WZ, Robertson D (2004) Clinical assessment of norepinephrine transporter blockade through biochemical and pharmacological profiles. Circulation 109:3202–3207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Molina PE, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Gifford A, Ding YS, Wong C, Pappas NR, Zhu W, Swanson JM (2003) Cardiovascular effects of methylphenidate in humans are associated with increases of dopamine in brain and of epinephrine in plasma. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166:264–270Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wallin BG, Sundlof G (1982) Sympathetic outflow to muscles during vasovagal syncope. J Auton Nerv Syst 6:287–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Williams M, Young JB, Rosa RM, Gunn S, Epstein FH, Landsberg L (1986) Effect of protein ingestion on urinary dopamine excretion: evidence for the functional importance of renal decarboxylation of circulating 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in man. J Clin Investig 78:1687–1693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wittstein IS, Thiemann DR, Lima JA, Baughman KL, Schulman SP, Gerstenblith G, Wu KC, Rade JJ, Bivalacqua TJ, Champion HC (2005) Neurohumoral features of myocardial stunning due to sudden emotional stress. N Engl J Med 352:539–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wolfovitz E, Grossman E, Folio CJ, Keiser HR, Kopin IJ, Goldstein DS (1993) Derivation of urinary dopamine from plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine in humans. Clin Sci 84:549–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Yamamoto T, Polinsky RJ, Goldstein DS, Baucom CE, Kopin IJ (1996) Plasma sulfoconjugated dopamine levels are normal in patients with autonomic failure. J Lab Clin Med 128:488–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Zavadil AP, Ross RJ, Calil HM, Linnoila M, Blombery P, Jimerson DC, Kopin IJ, Potter WZ (1984) The effect of desmethylimipramine on the metabolism of norepinephrine. Life Sci 35:1061–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ziegler MG, Lake CR, Kopin IJ (1976) Deficient sympathetic nervous response in familial dysautonomia. N Engl J Med 294:630–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ziegler MG, Lake CR, Kopin IJ (1977) The sympathetic-nervous-system defect in primary orthostatic hypotension. N Engl J Med 296:293–297PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural ResearchNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations