Journal of Digital Imaging

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 316–325 | Cite as

Tamper Localization and Lossless Recovery Watermarking Scheme with ROI Segmentation and Multilevel Authentication

  • Siau-Chuin Liew
  • Siau-Way Liew
  • Jasni Mohd Zain


Tamper localization and recovery watermarking scheme can be used to detect manipulation and recover tampered images. In this paper, a tamper localization and lossless recovery scheme that used region of interest (ROI) segmentation and multilevel authentication was proposed. The watermarked images had a high average peak signal-to-noise ratio of 48.7 dB and the results showed that tampering was successfully localized and tampered area was exactly recovered. The usage of ROI segmentation and multilevel authentication had significantly reduced the time taken by approximately 50 % for the tamper localization and recovery processing.


Lossless compression Tamper localization Recovery Medical image Watermarking 


  1. 1.
    Cox IJ, Miller ML, Bloom JA: Digital watermarking. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 2002Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cao F, Huang H-K, Zhou X-Q: Medical image security in a HIPAA mandated PACS environment. Comput Med Imaging Graph 27:185–196, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu T, Qiu Z-D: The survey of digital watermarking-based image authentication techniques in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Signal Processing. 2002Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guo X, Zhuang T: Lossless watermarking for verifying the integrity of medical images with tamper localization. J Digit Imaging 22(6):620–628, 2009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tan C-K, Ng C, Xu X, Poh C-L, Yong L-G, Sheah K: Security protection of DICOM medical images using dual-layer reversible watermarking with tamper detection capability. J Digit Imaging 24(3):528–540, 2011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu X: Reversible semi-fragile watermarking based on histogram shifting of integer wavelet coefficients in Proceedings of Inaugural IEEE-IES Digital EcoSystems and Technologies Conference. 2007Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu Y, Mei L, Liu Q, Jiang X: A high-tamper localization capability of image authentication algorithm in Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering. 2011Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guo J, Qiu W, Li P: Fragile watermarking scheme with pixel-level localization. commun comput inf sci 228(1):109–115, 2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yang C-W, Shen J-J: Recover the tampered image based on VQ indexing. Signal Process 90(1):331–343, 2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chiang K, Chang K, Chang R, Yen H: Tamper detection and restoring system for medical images using wavelet-based reversible data embedding. J Digit Imaging 21:77–90, 2008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tian J: Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 13(8):890–896, 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Osamah M, Khoo B-E: Authentication and data hiding using a hybrid ROI-based watermarking scheme for DICOM images. J Digit Imaging 24:114–125, 2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wu JHK, et al: Tamper detection and recovery for medical images using near-lossless information hiding technique. J Digit Imaging 21(1):59–76, 2008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zain JM, Fauzi ARM: Medical image watermarking with tamper detection and recovery in Proceedings of the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference. 2006Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liew S-C, Zain JM: Tamper localization and lossless recovery watermarking scheme. Commun Comput Inf Sci 179(1):555–566, 2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siau-Chuin Liew
    • 1
  • Siau-Way Liew
    • 2
  • Jasni Mohd Zain
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Computer Systems and Software EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PahangKuantanMalaysia
  2. 2.ConforMIS, Inc.BurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations