Advertisement

Journal of Digital Imaging

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 109–114 | Cite as

Preliminary Evaluation of Biplane Correlation (BCI) Stereographic Imaging for Lung Nodule Detection

  • Sarah J. BoyceEmail author
  • H. Page McAdams
  • Carl E. Ravin
  • Edward F. PatzJr.
  • Lacey Washington
  • Santiago Martinez
  • Lynne Koweek
  • Ehsan Samei
Article

Abstract

A biplane correlation (BCI) imaging system obtains images that can be viewed in stereo, thereby minimizing overlapping structures. This study investigated whether using stereoscopic visualization provides superior lung nodule detection compared to standard postero-anterior (PA) image display. Images were acquired at two oblique views of ±3° as well as at a standard PA position from 60 patients. Images were processed using optimal parameters and displayed on a stereoscopic display. The PA image was viewed in the standard format, while the oblique views were paired to provide a stereoscopic view of the subject. A preliminary observer study was performed with four radiologists who viewed and scored the PA image then viewed and scored the BCI stereoscopic image. The BCI stereoscopic viewing of lung nodules resulted in 71 % sensitivity and 0.31 positive predictive value (PPV) index compared to PA results of 86 % sensitivity and 0.26 PPV index. The sensitivity for lung nodule detection with the BCI stereoscopic system was reduced by 15 %; however, the total number of false positives reported was reduced by 35 % resulting in an improved PPV index of 20 %. The preliminary results indicate observer dependency in terms of relative advantage of either system in the detection of lung nodules, but overall equivalency of the two methods with promising potential for BCI as an adjunct diagnostic technique.

Keywords

Chest radiographs 3D imaging (imaging, three dimensional) Digital display Image acquisition Imaging Three dimensional Radiographic magnification Radiography Biplane correlation imaging Stereomammography Stereoradiography 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Anne Jarvis, Brenda Prince, Rob Saunders, Ben Pollard, Amar Chawla, and Xiang Li for the help in coordinating the clinical trial. Thanks are also due to Nicole Ranger and Jin Wooi Tan for coordinating the observer study, and Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and Planar Systems, Inc. for the equipment. The authors would also like to thank Michael Flynn of Henry Ford Health Systems, Detroit, MI for the tshow software to optimize images for display, and David Getty of BBN Technologies for the SDMViewer software used for image display.

References

  1. 1.
    ACS: Cancer Facts and Figures 2010. American Cancer Society, Atlanta, 2010Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hirsch FR, Franklin, Wilbur A, Gazdar, Adi F, Bunn Jr, PA: Early detection of lung cancer: clinical perspectives of recent advances in biology and radiology. Clinical Cancer Research 7:5–22, 2001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Samei E, Flynn MJ, Eyler WR: Detection of subtle lung nodules: relative influence of quantum and anatomical noise on chest radiographs. Radiography 213:727–734, 1999Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    National Cancer Institute: "Lung cancer trial results show mortality benefit with low-dose CT," http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/pressreleases/2010/NLSTresultsRelease Accessed 10 March 2011
  5. 5.
    Hricak H, Brenner DJ, Adelstein SJ, Frush DP, Hall EJ, Howell RW, McCollough CH, Mettler FA, Pearce MS, Suleiman OH, Thrall JH, Wagner LK: Managing radiation use in medical imaging: A multifacted challenge. Radiology 10101157, 2010Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith-Bindman R: Is computed tomography safe? The New England Journal of Medicine 363:1–4, 2010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mettler Jr, FA, Bhargavan M, Faulkner K, Gilley DB, Gray JE, Ibbott GS, Lipoti JA, Mahesh M, McCrohan JL, Stabin MG, Thomadsen BR, Yoshizumi TT: Radiologic and nuclear medicine studies in the United States and worldwide: Frequency, radiation dose, and comparison with other radiation sources—1950–2007. Radiology 253:520–531, 2009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Healthcare spending and the Medicare program. Available at http://www.medpac.gov/documents/Jun10DataBookEntireReport.pdf. Accessed 17 January 2011
  9. 9.
    Getty DJ, D’Orsi CJ, Pickett RM: Stereoscopic digital mammography: Improved accuracy of lesion detection in breast cancer screening. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5116:74–79, 2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chawla A, Boyce S, Samei E: Design of a new multi-projection imaging system for chest radiography. Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, IEEE 2996–2999, 2007Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mettler Jr, FA, Huda W, Yoshizumi TT, Mahesh M: Effective doses in radiology and diagnostic nuclear medicine: a catalog. Radiology 248:254–263, 2008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boyce SJ, Samei E: Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography. Medical Physics 33:984–996, 2006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Samei E, Stebbins SA, Dobbins III, T, Lo JY: Multiprojection correclation imaging for improved detection of pulmonary nodules. American Journal of Roentgenology 188:1239–1245, 2007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Samei E, Catarious Jr, D, Baydush AH, Floyd CE, Voracek-Vargas R: "Bi-plane correlation imaging for improved detection of lung nodules," Proc. SPIE 5030:284-297, 2003Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Planar 3D: Stereoscopic display technology. Available at http://www.planar3d.com/3d-technology/stereoscopic-101/. Accessed 27 April 2011
  16. 16.
    Kubo T, et al: Radiation dose reduction in chest CT: A review. AJR Am J Roentgenol 190:335–343, 2008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Samei E, Flynn MJ, Peterson E, Eyler WR: Subtle lung nodules: Influence of local anatomic variations on detection. Radiology 228:76–84, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Singh H, Sethi S, Raber M, Petersen LA: Errors in cancer diagnosis: Current understanding and future directions. Journal of Clinical Oncology 25:5009–5018, 2007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Getty DJ: Stereoscopic and biplane imaging. Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Publication, Oak Brook, 2003Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nasab NM, Samei E, Dobbins III JT: "Biplane correlation imaging for lung nodule detection: initial human subject results," Proc SPIE 6144:61441X-1-8, 2006Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nasab NM, Samei E, "The impact of angular separation on the performance of biplane correlation imaging for lung nodule detection," Proc. SPIE 6142:61421A-1-9, 2006Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Samei E, Stebbins SA, Dobbins 3rd, JT, McAdams HP, Lo JY: Multiprojection correlation imaging for improved detection of pulmonary nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol 188:1239–1245, 2007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goodsitt MM, Chan HP, Hadjiiski L: Stereomammography: Evaluation of depth perception using a virtual 3D cursor. Med Phys 27:1305–1310, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah J. Boyce
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • H. Page McAdams
    • 3
  • Carl E. Ravin
    • 3
  • Edward F. PatzJr.
    • 3
  • Lacey Washington
    • 3
  • Santiago Martinez
    • 3
  • Lynne Koweek
    • 3
  • Ehsan Samei
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of RadiologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical EngineeringPratt School of EngineeringDurhamUSA
  5. 5.Department of PhysicsPhysics Building, Science Dr.DurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations