Journal of Digital Imaging

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 943–949 | Cite as

Authentication and Self-Correction in Sequential MRI Slices

  • Vassilis FotopoulosEmail author
  • Maria L. Stavrinou
  • Athanassios N. Skodras


One of the new challenges of Information Technology in the medical world is the protection and authentication of a variety of digital medical files, datasets, and images. In this work, the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slice sequences to hide digital data is investigated and more specifically the case that the hidden data are the regions of interest (ROI) of the MRI slices. The regions of non-interest (RONI) are used as cover. The hiding capacity of the whole sequence is taken into account. Any ROI-targeted tampering attempt can be detected, and the original image can be self-restored (under certain conditions) by extracting the ROI from the RONI.


Medical imaging MRI ROI Authentication Self-correction Integrity JPEG2000 



Special thanks to the Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies (ITAB), Gabriele D’ Annunzio University, Chieti–Pescara, Italy and the Director Prof. Gian-Luca Romani for providing the MRI test sets. Maria L. Stavrinou is currently supported by a State Scholarship Foundation Post-Doctoral grant.


  1. 1.
    Navas KA, Thampy SA, and Sasikumar M: EPR hiding in medical images for telemedicine. Proceedings of the World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology, Rome, 2008, pp 292–295Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coatrieux G, Lecornu L, Sankur B, Roux C: A review of image watermarking applications in healthcare. IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 1:4691–4694, 2006Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zain JM, Clarke M: Reversible region of non-interest (RONI) watermarking for authentication of DICOM images. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security 7:19–28, 2007Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sencar HT, Ramkumar M, Akansu AN: Data hiding fundamentals and applications: content security in digital multimedia. Academic Press Inc, Orlando, 2004Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mahdian B, Saic S: A bibliography on blind methods for identifying image forgery. Signal Processing: Image Communication 25:389–399, 2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coatrieux G, Maitre H, Sankur B, Rolland Y, and Collorec R: Relevance of watermarking in medical imaging. Proceedings of the 3rd Conference Information Technology Application in Biomedicine, 2000, pp 250–255Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Giakoumaki A, Pavlopoulos S, Koutsouris D: Secure and efficient health data management through multiple watermarking on medical images. Med Bio Eng Comput 44:619–631, 2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chuang JC, Chang CC: Medical imaging and augmented reality. Springer, Berlin, 2004Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guo X, Zhuang TG: A region-based lossless watermarking scheme for enhancing security of medical data. J Digit Imaging 22:53–64, 2009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coatrieux G, Montagner J, Huang H, and Roux C: Mixed reversible and RONI watermarking for medical image reliability protection. Proceedings of the 29th International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, 2007, pp 5653–5656Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shih FY, Wu YT: Robust watermarking and compression for medical images based on genetic algorithms. Information Sciences 175:200–216, 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fotopoulos V, Stavrinou ML, Skodras AN: Medical Image authentication and self-correction through an adaptive reversible watermarking technique. Proceedings 8th IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and BioEngineering. doi: 10.1109/BIBE.2008.4696803, December 8, 2008
  13. 13.
    Connor LT, DeShazo Braby T, Snyder AZ, Lewis C, Blasi V, Corbetta M: Cerebellar activity switches hemispheres with cerebral recovery in aphasia. Neuropsychologia 44:171–177, 2006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    The JasPer project home page, Michael Adams, Available at∼mdadams/jasper. Accessed 3 July 2008.

Copyright information

© Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vassilis Fotopoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria L. Stavrinou
    • 2
    • 1
  • Athanassios N. Skodras
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Informatics, Computer Science, School of Science and TechnologyHellenic Open UniversityPatrasGreece
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, Neurophysiology Unit, Medical SchoolUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

Personalised recommendations