Software & Systems Modeling

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 559–586 | Cite as

Model-based tool support for Tactical Data Links: an experience report from the defence domain

  • Suraj Ajit
  • Chris Holmes
  • Julian Johnson
  • Dimitrios S. Kolovos
  • Richard F. Paige
Regular Paper

Abstract

The Tactical Data Link (TDL) allows the exchange of information between cooperating platforms as part of an integrated command and control (\(C^2\)) system. Information exchange is facilitated by adherence to a complex, message-based protocol defined by document-centric standards. In this paper, we report on a recent body of work investigating migration from a document-centric to a model-centric approach within the context of the TDL domain, motivated by a desire to achieve a positive return on investment. The model-centric approach makes use of the Epsilon technology stack and provides a significant improvement to both the level of abstraction and rigour of the network design. It is checkable by a machine and, by virtue of an MDA-like approach to the separation of domains and model transformation between domains, is open to integration with other models to support more complex workflows, such as by providing the results of interoperability analyses in human-readable domain-specific reports conforming to an accepted standard.

Keywords

Tactical data link Model-based development Interoperability Metamodelling Model management Eclipse Modeling Framework Epsilon 

References

  1. 1.
    US Department of Defense, Tactical Data Link (TDL) 16 Message Standard, MIL-STD-6016C, (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    NATO Standardization Agency, Standardization Agreement, Tactical Data Link Exchange - Link 16, (STANAG) 5516, Ed. 4Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Asenstorfer, J., Cox, T., Wilksch, D.: Tactical Data Link Systems and the Australian Defence Force (ADF) - Technology Developments and Interoperability Issues, DSTO-TR-1470 (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    TADIL J.: Introduction to Tactical Digital Information Link J and Quick Reference Guide. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/6-24-8/tadilj.pdf (2000)
  5. 5.
    Joint Data Link Management Organisation (JDLMO), Network UKJP0005B, Initialisation Data Catalogue, Network Design Cell, Final Release Version number 1.0 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tactical Data Link Network Design Station, TNDS Interface Control Document, Issue 2.9 (UK), HP Enterprise Services Defence & Security UK Ltd., (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    OMG, Human-Usable Textual Notation (HUTN) Specification, Version 1.0, (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    OMG, Object Constraint Language, Version 2.2, (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Parr, T.: The Definitive ANTLR Reference: Building Domain-Specific Languages, Pragmatic Programmers, (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Daly, C.: Emfatic Language Reference, http://www.eclipse.org/epsilon/doc/articles/emfatic/
  11. 11.
    Holzner, S.: Ant: The Definitive Guide, O’Reilly, (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kolovos, D., Rose, L., Paige, R.: The Epsilon Book, http://www.eclipse.org/epsilon/doc/book/
  13. 13.
    Buschmann, F., Meunier, R., Rohnert, H., Sommerlad, P., Stal, M.: A System of Patterns: Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture. Wiley, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Object Management Group, Jishnu Mukerji, Joaquin Miller, MDA Guide. http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?omg/03-06-01.pdf (2001)
  15. 15.
    Johnson, J., Holmes, C.: Improving System Dependability via a Model-Based Approach to Standards, MIT BAE Systems Fall Conference, October 30–31, (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Johnson, J., Holmes, C.: Model-based approach to a complex requirement-design domain: TDLs, 7th Annual Conference on Systems Engineering Research 2009 (CSER2009), Loughborough University, April 20–23, (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xtext 2.4 Documentation, (2013), www.eclipse.org/Xtext/documentation.html
  18. 18.
    Clayberg, E., Rubel, D.: Building Commercial Quality Plug-Ins, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley, Boston (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kolovos, Dimitrios S., Paige, Richard F., Polack, Fiona A.C.: Agile Model Editing in the Eclipse Modeling Framework using Executable Metamodel Annotations. In Proceedings of 1st Towers of Models Workshop, TOOLS EUROPE (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Steinberg, D., Budinsky, F., Paternostro, M., Merks, E.: EMF: Eclipse Modelling Framework. Eclipse Series, second edition. Addison-Wesley Professional, Boston (2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kolovos, Dimitrios S., Paige, Richard F., Polack, Fiona A.C.: The Epsilon Object Language. In Proceedings of European Conference in Model Driven Architecture (EC-MDA) 2006, vol. 4066 of LNCS, pages 128–142, Bilbao, Spain, (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kolovos, Dimitrios S., Paige, Richard F., Polack, Fiona A.C.: A Framework for Composing Modular and Interoperable Model Management Tasks. In Proceedings of Workshop on Model Driven Tool and Process Integration (MDTPI), ECMDA, Berlin, Germany, (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sorroche, J.: Modeling in tactical data links. In: Tolk, A., (ed.) Engineering Principles of Combat Modeling and Distributed Simulation, pp. 537–578. Wiley (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gon Kim, T., Moon, I.: Combat modeling using the DEVS formalism. In: Tolk, A., (ed.) Engineering Principles of Combat Modeling and Distributed Simulation, pp. 479–510. Wiley (2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zeigler, B.P. (ed.): Multifaceted Modeling and Discrete Event Simulation. Academic press, London (1984)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim, T., G., Zeigler, B., P.: The DEVS Formalism: Hierarchical Modular System Specification in an Object Oriented Framework. In: Proceedings of the 19th Conference on Winter Simulation - WSC ’87, pp. 559–566, New York, (1987)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zeigler, BP., Kim, TG., Praehofer, H.: Theory of Modeling and Simulation: Integrating Discrete Event and Continuous Complex Dynamic Systems, San Diego, [Calif.]: Academic, (2000)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zeigler, BP.: Simulation-based Testing of Emerging Defense Information Systems. http://acims.asu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/AuburnTalk.ppt (2006)
  29. 29.
    Mak, E., Mittal, S., Hwang, M., Nutaro, J.J.: Automated Link-16Testing using the discrete event system specification and extensiblemarkup language. J. Def. Model. Simul.Appl. Methodol. Technol. 7, 39–62 (2010)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mohagheghi, P., Gilani, W., Stefanescu, A., Fernandez, M.A.: An empirical study of the state of the practice and acceptance of model-driven engineering in four industrial cases. Empir. Softw. Eng. 18, 89–116 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mohagheghi, P., Dehlen, V.: Where is the proof? A review of experiences from applying MDE in industry. Model Driven Archit. Found. Appl. 5095, 432–443 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mohagheghi, P., Fernandez, M., Martell, J, Fritzsche, M., Gilani, W.: MDE Adoption in Industry: Challenges and Success Criteria. In: Chaudron, M. V. (ed.), pp. 54–59. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mohagheghi, P., Gilani, W., Stefanescu, A., Fernandez, M.A., Nordmoen, B., Fritzsche, M.: Where does model-driven engineering help? Experiences from three industrial cases. Softw. Syst. Model. 12(3), 619–639 (2013)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Evans, A., Fernandez, M.A., Mohagheghi, P.: Experiences of developing a network modeling tool using the eclipse environment. Model Driven Archit. Found. Appl. 5562, 301–312 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kirstan, S., Zimmermann, J.: Evaluating costs and benefits of model-based development of embedded software systems in the car industry, Results of a qualitative case study. In: Proceedings Workshop C2M: EEMDD “from Code Centric to Model Centric: Evaluating the Effectiveness of MDD (ECMFA.2010), (2010)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hutchinson, J.: An Empirical Assessment of Model Driven Development in Industry, (2012)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Torchiano, M., Tomassetti, F., Ricca, F., Tiso, A., Reggio, G.: Relevance, benefits, and problems of software modelling and model driven techniques—a survey in the Italian industry. J. Syst. Softw. 86(8), 2110–2126 (2013)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baker, P., Loh, S., Weil, F.: Model-driven engineering in a large industrial context-Motorola case study. In: ACM/IEEE 8th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems. LNCS, vol. 3713, pp. 476–491. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Krogmann, K., Becker, S.: A case study on model-driven and conventional software development: the palladio editor. In: Software Engineering Workshops, vol. 106, pp. 169–176 (2007)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kapteijns, T., Jansen, S., Brinkkemper, S., Houet, H., Barendse, R.: A comparative case study of model driven development vs traditional development: the tortoise or the hare. In: 4th European Workshop on from Code Centric to Model Centric Software Engineering: Practices, Implications and ROI, Netherlands (2009)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Karna, J., Tolvanen, J., Kelly, S.: Evaluating the use of domain-specific modeling in practice. In: Proceedings of the 9th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling, DSM, Florida, USA (2009)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Texel, P., Williams, C.: Use Cases Combined with Booch, OMT, UML. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River (1997)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kiczales, G., Lamping, J., Mendhekar, A., Maeda, C., Videira Lopes, C., Loingtier, J-M., Irwin, J.: Aspect-Oriented Programming. In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP). Springer LNCS 1241, Finland (1997)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Broy, M., Kirstan, S., Krcmar, H., Schatz, B.: What is the benefit of a model-based design of embedded software systems in the car industry? In: Rech, J. (ed.) Emerging Technologies for the Evolution and Maintenance of Software Models, pp.343–369. IGI Global, Hershey (2011)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hutchinson, J., Whittle, J., Rouncefield, M., Kristoffersen, S.: Empirical assessment of MDE in industry. ICSE, 471–480 (2011)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hutchinson, J., Rouncefield, M., Whittle, J.: Model-driven engineering practices in industry. ICSE 633–642 (2011)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hutchinson, J., Whittle, J., Rouncefield, M.: Model-driven engineering practices in industry: social, organizational and managerial factors that lead to success or failure. Sci. Comput. Program. 89, 144–161 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Whittle, J., Hutchinson, J., Rouncefield, M.: The state of practice in model-driven engineering. IEEE Softw. 31, 79–85 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Whittle, J., Hutchinson, J.: Mismatches between Industry Practice and Teaching of Model-Driven Software Development, MoDELS Workshops pp. 40–47 (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suraj Ajit
    • 1
  • Chris Holmes
    • 2
  • Julian Johnson
    • 3
  • Dimitrios S. Kolovos
    • 4
  • Richard F. Paige
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceNorthampton UniversityNorthamptonUK
  2. 2.CGI ITLondonUK
  3. 3.Advanced Technology Centre, BAE SystemsPrestonUK
  4. 4.Department of Computer ScienceThe University of YorkYorkUK

Personalised recommendations