Software & Systems Modeling

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 397–426 | Cite as

A situational method for semi-automated Enterprise Architecture Documentation

  • Matthias Farwick
  • Christian M. Schweda
  • Ruth Breu
  • Inge Hanschke
Regular Paper

Abstract

The business capabilities of modern enterprises crucially rely on the enterprises’ information systems and underlying IT infrastructure. Hence, optimization of the business-IT alignment is a key objective of Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM). To achieve this objective, EAM creates, maintains and analyzes a model of the current state of the Enterprise Architecture. This model covers different concepts reflecting both the business and the IT perspective and has to be constantly maintained in response to ongoing transformations of the enterprise. In practice, EA models grow large and are difficult to maintain, since many stakeholders from various backgrounds have to contribute architecture-relevant information. EAM literature and two practitioner surveys conducted by the authors indicate that EA model maintenance, in particular the manual documentation activities, poses one of the biggest challenges to EAM in practice. Current research approaches target the automation of the EA documentation based on specific data sources. These approaches, as our systematic literature review showed, do not consider enterprise specificity of the documentation context or the variability of the data sources from organization to organization. The approach presented in this article specifically accounts for these factors and presents a situational method for EA documentation. It builds on four process-supported documentation techniques which can be selected, composed and applied to design an organization-specific documentation process. The techniques build on a meta-model for EA documentation, which is implemented in an EA-repository prototype that supports the configuration and execution of the documentation techniques. We applied our documentation method assembly process at a German insurance company and report the findings from this case study in particular regarding practical applicability and usability of our approach.

Keywords

Enterprise Architecture Documentation Maintenance Model Automation Situational method 

References

  1. 1.
    Ahlemann, F., Stettiner, E., Messerschmidt, M., Legner, C.: Strategic Enterprise Architecture Mangement. Springer, Berlin (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aier, S., Buckl, S., Franke, U., Gleichauf, B., Johnson, P., Närman, P., Schweda, C., Ullberg, J.: A survival analysis of application life spans based on enterprise architecture models. In: 3rd International Workshop on Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures, pp. 141–154. Ulm, Germany (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aier, S., Gleichauf, B.: Application of enterprise models for engineering enterprise transformation. Enterp. Model. Inf. Syst. Arch. 5, 56–72 (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aier, S., Gleichauf, B.: Understanding Enterprise Architecture Management design—an empirical analysis. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik WI 2011 (Zürich) (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aier, S., Kurpjuweit, S., Saat, J., Winter, R.: Enterprise architecture design as an engineering discipline. AIS Trans. Enterp. Syst. 1(1), 36–43 (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alegria, A., Vasconcelos, A.: IT architecture automatic verification. In: 2010 Fourth International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS) (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arbab, F., de Boer, F., Bonsangue, M., Lankhorst, M., Proper, H., van der Torre, L.: Integrating architectural models: symbolic, semantic and subjective models in enterprise architecture. Enterp. Model. Inf. Syst. Archit. 2(1), 40–57 (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brinkkemper, S.: Method engineering: engineering of information methods and tools. Inf. Softw. Technol. 38(4), 275–280 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brückmann, Tobias, Gruhn, Volker, Pfeiffer, M.: Towards real-time monitoring and controlling of enterprise architectures using business software control centers. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Softw. Archit. 6903, 287–294 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buckl, S., Ernst, A., Lankes, J.: Generating visualizations of enterprise architectures using model transformations. Enterp. Model. Inf. Syst. Archit. 2(2), 03–13 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buckl, S., Ernst, A., Matthes, F., Schweda, C.: How to make your Enterprise Architecture Management endeavor fail! In: Pattern Languages of Programs 2009 (PLoP 2009), Chicago (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buckl, S., Ernst, A.M., Lankes, J., Matthes, F., Schweda, C.M.: State of the Art in Enterprise Architecture Management. Technical Report (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buckl, S., Matthes, F., Neubert, C.: A lightweight approach to enterprise architecture modeling and documentation. Inf. Syst. Evol. 72, 136–149 (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buckl, S., Schweda, C.M.: On the State-of-the-Art in Enterprise Architecture Management Literature. Tech. rep, Technische Unversität München (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buckl, S.: Developing Organization-Specific Enterprise Architecture Management Functions Using a Method Base. Ph.D. thesis, Technical University Munich (2011)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buschle, M., Ekstedt, M., Grunow, S., Hauder, M., Matthes, F., Roth, S.: Automating Enterprise Architecture Documentation using an enterprise service bus. In: Americas Conference on Insormations Systems (AMCIS) (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Engels, G., Hess, A., Humm, B., Juwig, O., Lohmann, M., Richter, J.P.: Quasar Enterprise: Anwendungslandschaften Serviceorientiert Gestalten. Dpunkt Verlag, Heidelberg (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Farwick, M., Agreiter, B., Breu, R., Ryll, S., Voges, K., Hanschke, I.: Automation Processes for Enterprise Architecture Management. In: 2011 IEEE 15th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops, pp. 340–349. IEEE, Helsinki, Finland (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Farwick, M., Agreiter, B., Ryll, S., Voges, K., Hanschke, I., Breu, R.: Requirements for automated enterprise architecture model maintenance. In: 13th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS), Beijing (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Farwick, M., Hauder, M., Roth, S., Matthes, F., Breu, R.: Enterprise Architecture Documentation: empirical analysis of information sources for automation. In: Proceedings of 46th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science (HICCS-46). IEEE Computer Society, Wailea, Maui, USA (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Farwick, M., Pasquazzo, W., Breu, R., Schweda, C.M., Voges, K., Hanschke, I.: A meta-model for automated enterprise architecture model maintenance. In: 2012 IEEE 16th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, pp. 1–10. IEEE (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Farwick, M., Schweda, C., Breu, R.: On enterprise architecture change events. In: Trends in Enterprise Architecture Research (TEAR), pp. 129–145. Barcelona, Spain (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fischer, R., Aier, S., Winter, R.: A federated approach to enterprise architecture model maintenance. Enterp. Model. Inf. Syst. Archit. 2(2), 14–22 (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Frank, U., Heise, D., Kattenstroth, H.: Use of a domain specific modeling language for realizing versatile dashboards. In: Proceedings of the 9th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) (2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fuchs-Kittowski, F., Faust, D.: The semantic architecture tool (SemAT) for collaborative enterprise architecture development. In: Groupware: Design, Implementation, and Use, pp. 151–163. Springer, Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gericke, A., Winter, R.: Situational Change Engineering in Healthcare. In: M. Stormer, H., Meier, A., Schumacher (Ed.) European Conference on eHealth 2006, Lecture Notes in Informatics, pp. 227–238. Gesellschaft für Informatik, Bonn (2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gutzwiller, M.: Das CC-RIM Referenzmodell für den Entwurf von betrieblichen, transaktionsorientierten Informationssystemen. Physika, Heidelberg (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hanschke, I.: Strategic IT Management: A Toolkit for Enterprise Architecture Management. Springer, Berlin (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hanschke, I.: Strategisches Management der IT-Landschaft: Ein praktischer Leitfaden für das Enterprise Architecture Management. Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. (2010)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Happel, H., Seedorf, S.: Documenting service-oriented architectures with ontobrowse semantic wiki. In: Heinzl, E.J., Armin, Appelrath, Hans, J., Sinz (Eds.) Proceedings of the PRIMIUM Subconference at the Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik (MKWI) (2008)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Harmsen, A., Brinkkemper, J., Oei, J.: Situational method engineering for information system project approaches. In: Proceedings of the IFIP WG 8.1 Working Conference, Maastricht, Netherlands, pp. 169–194 (1994)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hauder, M., Matthes, F., Roth, S.: Challenges for automated Enterprise Architecture Documentation. In: Trends in Enterprise Architecture Research (TEAR), pp. 21–39. Springer, Berlin, Barcelona, Spain (2012)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Henderson-Sellers, B., Gonzalez-Perez, C., Ralyte, J.: Comparison of method chunks and method fragments for situational method engineering. In: 19th Australian Conference on Software Engineering, 2008 (ASWEC 2008), pp. 479–488 (2008)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hevner, A., March, S.T., Park, J., Ram, S.: Design science in information system research. MIS Q. 28(1), 75–106 (2004)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Holm, H., Buschle, M., Lagerström, R., Ekstedt, M.: Automatic data collection for enterprise architecture models. Softw. Syst. Model. 1–17 (2012). doi: 10.1007/s10270-012-0252-1
  36. 36.
    Kaisler, S., Armour, F., Valivullah, M.: Enterprise architecting: critical problems. In: Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 00(C), pp. 224b–224b (2005)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Keller, W.: IT-Unternehmensarchitektur: von der Geschäftsstrategie zur optimalen IT-Unterstützung. Dpunkt-Verlag, Heidelberg (2012)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lankhorst, M.: Enterprise Architecture at Work, vol. 36. Springer, Berlin (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Laube, A., Gagnerot, J.M.v.d.W.G., Blösch, M., Verbeek, E., van der Aalst, W., Plate, H.: Concept and Architecture for Automated Model Creation, Population, Maintenance and Audit. Tech. Rep. 257109, FP7 Project PoSecCo (2012)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lucke, C., Krell, S., Lechner, U.: Critical issues in enterprise architecting a literature review critical issues in enterprise architecting a literature review. In: AMCIS 2010 Proceedings (2010)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    McClure, D.: Integrating Enterprise Architecture and Portfolio Management Processes in Government Gartner. Tech. Rep. June, Gartner Inc. (2006)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Moser, C., Junginger, S., Brückmann, M., Schöne, K.: Some process patterns for Enterprise Architecture Management. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Patterns in Enterprise Architecture Management (PEAM2009), Bonn, pp. 19–30 (2009)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    omg: Meta Object Facility (MOF) Core Specification Version 2.0 (2006)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Roth, S., Hauder, M., Farwick, M., Matthes, F., Breu, R.: Enterprise Architecture Documentation: current practices und future directions. In: International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, pp. 911–925. AIS, Leipzig, Germany (2013)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Roth, S., Hauder, M., Michel, F., Münch, D., Matthes, F.: Facilitating conflict resolution of models for automated Enterprise Architecture Documentation. In: AMCIS 2013 Proceedings (2013)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schmidt, A., Osl, P., Back, A., Brenner, W., Österle, H.: A Method for Establishing Transparency on Integration Objects. Tech. rep., University of St. Gallen (2008)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sousa, P., Gabriel, R., Tadao, G.: Enterprise Transformation: The serasa experian case. In: Proceedings of the Third Working Conference, PRET 2011, Luxembourg-Kirchberg, Luxembourg, September 6, 2011. pp. 134–145 (2011)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    ter Doest, H., Lankhorst, M.: Tool Support for Enterprise Architecture-A Vision. Tech. rep, Telematica Instituut, Enschede (2004)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    The Open Group: TOGAF “Enterprise Edition” Version 9.1 (2009). http://www.togaf.org
  50. 50.
    Wigand, R., Picot, A., Reichwald, R.: Information, Organization, and Management: Expanding Markets and Corporate Boundaries. Wiley, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chen, W., Hess, C., Langermeier, M., von Stuelpnagel, J., Diefenthaler, P.: Semantic Enterprise Architecture Management. In: 15th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS) (2013)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Winter, K., Buckl, S., Matthes, F., Schweda, C.: Investigating the state-of-the-art in Enterprise Architecture Management methods in literature and practice. In: 2010 Proceedings MCIS (2010)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Winter,R., Fischer, R.: Essential layers, artifacts, and dependencies of enterprise architecture. In: Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops, 2006. EDOCW ’06. 10th IEEE International, Hong Kong, China (2006)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zachman, J.A.: A framework for information systems architecture. IBM Syst. J. 26(3), 276–292 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthias Farwick
    • 1
  • Christian M. Schweda
    • 2
  • Ruth Breu
    • 1
  • Inge Hanschke
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Computer ScienceUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  2. 2.iteratec GmbHMunich, UnterhachingGermany

Personalised recommendations