Software & Systems Modeling

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 235–249 | Cite as

A UML and OWL description of Bunge’s upper-level ontology model

  • Joerg EvermannEmail author
Regular Paper


A prominent high-level ontology is that proposed by Mario Bunge. While it has been extensively used for research in IS analysis and conceptual modelling, it has not been employed in the more formal settings of semantic web research. We claim that its specification in natural language is the key inhibitor to its wider use. Consequently, this paper offers a description of this ontology in open, standardized knowledge representation formats. The ontology is described both in UML and OWL in order to address needs of both semantic web and conceptual modelling communities.


Natural Kind Description Logic Domain Ontology Object Management Group Ontological Evaluation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Memorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

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