, Volume 13, Issue 10–11, pp 703–726

Prise en charge du cancer du sein infiltrant de la femme âgée de 40 ans ou moins

  • M. -P. Chauvet
  • M. Debled
  • C. Decanter
  • A. Goncalves
  • R. Largillier
  • P. Pujol
  • P. Saltel
  • P. Taourel
Veille Bibliographique / Literature Monitoring


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adami HO, Malker B, Holmberg L, et al. (1986) The relation between survival and age at diagnosis in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 315: 559–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams E, McCann L, Armes J, et al. (2010) The experiences, needs and concerns of younger women with breast cancer: a meta-ethnography. Psycho-oncology: article first published online: 30 June 2010, DOI:10.1002/pon.1792Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aebi S, Gelber S, Castiglione-Gertsch M, et al. (2000) Is chemotherapy alone adequate for young women with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer? Lancet 355: 1869–1874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Agrup M, Stäl O, Olsen K, et al. (2000) C-erbB-2 overexpression and survival in early onset breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 63: 23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Albain KS, Barlow WE, Shak S, et al. (2010) Prognostic and predictive value of the 21-gene recurrence score assay in postmenopausal women with node-positive, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer on chemotherapy: a retrospective analysis of a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 11: 55–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Albritton K, Barr R, Bleyer A (2009) The adolescence of yound adult oncology. Semin Oncol 36(5): 478–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anders CK, Hsu DS, Broadwater G, et al. (2008) Young age at diagnosis correlates with worse prognosis and defines a subset of breast cancers with shared patterns of gene expression. J Clin Oncol 26: 3324–3330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andre F, Khalil A, Slimane K, et al. (2005) Mitotic index and benefit of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 23: 2996–3000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ansquer Y, Gautier C, Fourquet A, et al. (1998) Survival in early-onset BRCA1 breast-cancer patients. Institut Curie Breast Cancer Group. Lancet 352: 541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ardern-Jones A, Kenen R, Eeles R (2005) Too much, too soon? Patients and Health professionals’ views concerning the impact of genetic testing at the time of breast cancer diagnosis in women under the age of 40. Eur J Cancer Care 14: 272–281Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arora NK, Gustafson DH, Hawkins RP et al. (2001) Impact of surgery and chemotherapy on the quality of life of younger women with breast carcinoma: a prospective study. Cancer 92: 1288–1298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arriagada G, Lê MG, Contesso G, et al. (2002) Predictive factors for local recurrence in 2006 patients with surgically resected small breast cancer. Ann Oncol 13: 1404–1413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arriagada R, Lê MG, Spielmann M, et al. (2005) Randomized trial of adjuvant ovarian suppression in 926 premenopausal patients with early breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Ann Oncol 16(3): 389–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arriagada R, Spielmann M, Koscielny S, et al. (2002) Patterns of failure in a randomized trial of adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with early breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. Ann Oncol 13: 1378–1386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ataya KM, McKanna JA, Weintraub AM, et al. (1985) A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular loss in rats. Cancer Res 45(8): 3651–3656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Azim AA, Costantini-Ferrando M, Oktay K (2008) Safety of fertility preservation by ovarian stimulation with letrozole and gonadotropins in patients with breast cancer: a prospective controlled study. J Clin Oncol 26(16): 2630–2635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bauer KR, Brown M, Cress RD, et al. (2007) Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype. Cancer 109: 1721–1728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beadle BM, Woodward WA, Tucker SL, et al. (2009) Ten-year recurrence rates in young women with breast cancer by locoregional treatment approach. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 73(3): 734–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ben-Aharon I, Gafter-Gvili A, Leibovici L, et al. (2010) Pharmacological interventions for fertility preservation during chemotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 122(3): 803–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Berliere M, Dalenc F, Malingret N, et al. (2008) Incidence of reversible amenorrhea in women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy with or without docetaxel. BMC Cancer 8: 56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Berry DA, Cirrincione C, Henderson IC, et al. (2006) Estrogen-receptor status and outcomes of modern chemotherapy for patients with node-positive breast cancer. J Am Med Assoc 295: 1658–1667Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blakely LJ, Buzdar AU, Lozada JA, et al. (2004) Effects of pregnancy after treatment for breast carcinoma on survival and risk of recurrence. Cancer 100: 465–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blamey RW, Hornmark-Stenstam B, Ball G, et al. (2010) ONCOPOOL — A European database for 16,944 cases of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 46: 56–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bloom JR, Stewart SL, Chang S, et al. (2004) Then and now: quality of life of young breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology 13: 147–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blumenfeld Z, Eckman A (2005) Preservation of fertility and ovarian function and minimization of chemotherapy-induced gonadotoxicity in young women by GnRH-a. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr (34): 40–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Blumenfeld Z, von Wolff M (2008) GnRH-analogues and oral contraceptives for fertility preservation in women during chemotherapy. Hum Reprod Update 14(6): 543–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bollet MA, Sigal-Zafrani B, Mazeau V, et al. (2007) Age remains the first prognostic factor for loco-regional breast cancer recurrence in young (< 40 years) women treated with breast conserving surgery first. Radiother Oncol 82: 272–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bossard N, Velten M, Remontet L, et al. (2007) Survival of cancer patients in France: a population-based study from The Association of the French Cancer Registries (FRANCIM). Eur J Cancer 43: 149–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Botteri E, Bagnardi V, Rotmensz N, et al. (2010) Analysis of local and regional redurrences in breast cancer after conservative surgery. Ann Oncol 21: 723–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brennan ME, Houssami N, Lord S, et al. (2009) Magnetic resonnance imaging screening of the contralateral breast in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of incermental cancer detection and impact on surgical management. C Clin Oncol 27: 5640–5649Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brinton LA, Sherman ME, Carreon JD, et al. (2008) Recent trends in breast cancer among younger women in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 100: 1643–1648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Burgess C, Cornelius V, Love S, et al. (2005) Depression and anxiety in woman with early breast cancer: five years observational cohort study. BMJ 330(7493): 702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burwel SR, Case LD, Kaelin C, et al. (2006) Sexual problems younger women after breast cancer surgery. J Clin Oncol 24: 2815–2821Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cancello G, Maisonneuve P, Rotmensz N, et al. (2010) Prognosis and adjuvant treatment effects in selected breast cancer subtypes of very young women (< 35 years) with operable breast cancer. Ann Oncol 21: 1974–1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Carlson RW, Allred DC, Anderson BO, et al. (2009) NCCN Breast Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines Panel. Breast cancer. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 7(2): 122–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cayrou S, Dickes P (2008) Les facteurs associés à l’ajustement mental des malades du cancer: un exemple d’utilisation de la MAC. Chapitre IV: Les problèmes psychologiques des malades et leur prise en charge — Étude DRESS: La vie deux ans après le diagnostic de cancer — Le Corroler-Soriano AG, Malatvolti L, Mermilliod C. Ministère du TravailGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chabert Buffet N, Uzan C, Gligorov J, et al. (2010) Pregnancy after breast cancer: a need for global patient care, starting before adjuvant therapy. Surg Oncol 19(1): e47–e55. Epub 2009 May 14Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chia S, Bryce C, Gelmon K (2005) The 2000 EBCTCG overview: a widening gap. Lancet 365(9472): 1665–1666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chung M, Chang HR, Bland KI, et al. (1996) Younger women with breast carcinoma have a poorer prognosis than older women. Cancer 77: 97–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cimprich B, Ronis DL, Martnez-Ramos G (2002) Age at diagnosis and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Cancer Pract 10: 85–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Colleoni M, Rotmensz N, Robertson C, et al. (2002) Very young women (< 35 years) with operable breast cancer: features of disease at presentation. Ann Oncol 13: 273–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Conforti R, Boulet T, Tomasic G, et al. (2007) Breast cancer molecular subclassification and estrogen receptor expression to predict efficacy of adjuvant anthracyclines-based chemotherapy: a biomarker study from two randomized trials. Ann Oncol 18: 1477–1483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Costanzo ES, Lutgendorf SK, Mattes ML, et al. (2007) Adjusting to life after treatment for breast cancer. Br J Cancer 97(12): 1625–1631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Coulombe G, Tyldesley S, Speers C, et al. (2007) Is mastectomy superior to breast-conserving treatment for young women? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67(5): 1282–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cuzik J (2007) Use of luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists as adjuvant treatment in premenopausal patients with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised adjuvant trials. Lancet 369(9574): 1711–1723Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Danforth DR, Arbogast LK, Friedman CI (2005) Acute depletion of murine primordial follicle reserve by gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists. Fertil Steril 83(5): 1333–1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    De Cluze C, Colonna M, Remontet L, et al. (2009) Analysis of the effect of age on the prognosis of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 117: 117–119Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    De la Rochefordiere A, Asselain B, Campana F, et al. (1993) Age as prognostic factor in premenopausal breast carcinoma. Lancet 341: 1039–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Del Mastro L, Catzeddu T, Boni L, et al. (2006) Prevention of chemotherapy-induced menopause by temporary ovarian suppression with goserelin in young, early breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol 17(1): 74–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Diab SG, Elledge RM, Clark GM (2000) Tumor characteristics and clinical outcome of elderly women with breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92: 550–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Donnez J, Dolmans MM, Demylle D, et al. (2004) Livebirth after orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Lancet 364(9443): 1405–1410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dunn J, Steginga SK (2000) Young women’s experience of breast cancer: defining young and identifying concerns. Psychooncology 9: 137–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    EBCTCG Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (2005) Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomized trials. Lancet 365: 1687–1717Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    EBCTCG Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (2008) Adjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen-receptor-poor breast cancer: patient-level meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet 371: 29–40Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Elkhuizen PHM, van de Vijver MJ, Hermans JH, et al. (1998) Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 40(4): 859–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Falk Dahl CA, Reinersten KV, Fossa SD, et al. (2010) A study of body image in long-term breast cancer survivors. Cancer 116(15): 3549–3557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fénichel P, Chevalier N (2011) Existe-t-il des médicaments fertiloprotecteurs en cas de chimiothérapie chez la femme ? Gynecol Obstet Fertil 39(1): 63–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fernandes-Taylor S, Bloom JR (2010) Post-treatment regret among young breast cancer survivors. Psycho-oncology 2010 Article first published online: 23 APR 2010, DOI:10.1002/pon.1749Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Figueiredo J, Ennis M, Knight J, et al. (2007) Influence of young age at diagnosis and family history of breast or ovarian cancer on breast cancer outcomes in a population-based cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 105: 69–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fischer U, Zachariae O, Baum F, et al. (2004) The influence of preoperative MRI of the breasts on recurrence rate in patients with breast cancer. Eur Radiol 14: 1725–1731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fobair P, Steward SL, Chang S, et al. (2006) Body image and sexual problems in young women with breast cancer. Psychooncology 15: 579–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fobair P, Stewart SL, Chang S, et al. (2009) Body image and sexual problems in young women with breast cancer. Psychooncology 16: 579–594Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Foekens JA, Atkins D, Zhang Y, et al. (2006) Multicenter validation of a gene expression-based prognostic signature in lymph node-negative primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 24: 1665–1671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fornier MN, Modi S, Panageas KS, et al. (2005) Incidence of chemotherapy-induced, long-term amenorrhea in patients with breast carcinoma age 40 years and younger after adjuvant anthracycline and taxane. Cancer 104(8): 1575–1579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fourquet A, Campana F, Zafrani B, et al. (1989) Pronostic factors of breast recurrence in the conservative management of early breast cancer: a 25-year follow-up. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 17(4): 719–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fowble BL, Schultz DJ, Overmoyer B, et al. (1994) The influence of young age on outcome in early stage breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 30(1): 23–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ganz P, Greendale GA Petersen L, et al. (2003) Breast cancer in younger women: reproductive and late health effects of treatment. J Clin Oncol 21: 4184–4193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gelber S, Coates AS, Goldhirsch A, et al. (2001) Effect of pregnancy on overall survival after the diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 19: 1671–1675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gentile M, Bergman Jungestrom M, Olsen KE, et al. (1999) p53 and survival in early onset breast cancer: analysis of gene mutations, loss of heterozygosity and protein accumulation. Eur J Cancer 35: 1202–1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gentile M, Olsen K, Dufmats M, et al. (1999) Frequent allelic losses at 11q24.1–q25 in young women with breast cancer: association with poor survival. Br J Cancer 80: 843–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gentilini O, Botteri E, Rotmensz N, et al. (2010) Breast-conserving surgery in 201 very young patients (< 35 years). Breast 19: 55–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gnant M, Mlineritsch B, Stoeger H, et al. (2010) Mature results from ABCSG-12: adjuvant ovarian suppression combined with tamoxifen or anastrozole, alone or in combination with zoledronic acid, in premenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. 2010 ASCO annual meeting. J Clin Oncol 28: 15s (Suppl.; abstr 533)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gnerlich J, Deshpande A, Jeffe D, et al. (2008) Elevated breast cancer mortality in young women (< 40 years) compared with older women is attributed to poorer survival in early stage disease. 2008 American College of Surgeons Clinical CongressGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD, Castiglione M (1990) The magnitude of endocrine effects of adjuvant chemotherapy for premenopausal breast cancer patients. The International Breast Cancer Study Group. Ann Oncol 1(3): 183–188Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD, Yothers G, et al. (2001) Adjuvant therapy for very young women with breast cancer: need for tailored treatments. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 30: 44–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Goldhirsch A, Ingle JN, Gelber RD, et al. (2009) Thresholds for therapies: highlights of the St Gallen International Expert Consensus on the primary therapy of early breast cancer 2009. Ann Oncol 20: 1319–1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Timms KM, Liu S, et al. (2011) Incidence and outcome of BRCA mutations in unselected patients with triple receptor-negative breast cancer. Clin Cancer ResGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Goss PE (2009) Outcomes of women who were premenopausal at diagnosis of early stage breast cancer in the NCIC-CTG MA17 Trial. SABCS 2009 Abst 13Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Grann VR, Troxel AB, Zojwalla NJ, et al. (2005) Hormone receptor status and survival in a population-based cohort of patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer 103: 2241–2251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Han HS, Ro J, Lee KS, et al. (2009) Analysis of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea rates by three different anthracycline and taxane containing regimens for early breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 115(2): 335–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Han W, Kang SY (2010) Relationship between age at diagnosis and outcome of premenopausal breast cancer age less than 35 years is a reasonable cut off for defining young age-onset breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 119(1): 193–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hankey BF, Miller B, Curtis R, et al. (1994) Trends in breast cancer in younger women in contrast to older women. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 7-14Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hartley MC, McKinley BP, Rogers EA, et al. (2006) Differential expression of prognostic factors and effect on survival in young (≤ 40) breast cancer patients: a case-control study. Am Surg 72: 1189–1194; discussion 1194–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hickey M, Peate M, Saunders CM, et al. (2009) Breast cancer in young women and its impact on reproductive function. Hum Reprod Update 15(3): 323–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Holli K, Isola J (1997) Effect of age on the survival of breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 33: 425–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hortobagyi GN, Buzdar AU, Marcus CE, et al. (1986) Immediate and long-term toxicity of adjuvant chemotherapy regimens containing doxorubicin in trials at M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. NCI Monogr (1): 105–109Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Houssami N, Ciatto S, Macaskill P, et al. (2008) Accuracy and surgical impact of magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer staging: systematic review and meta-analysis in detection of multifocal and multicentric cancer. J Clin Oncol 26: 3248–3258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    IBCSG International Breast Cancer Study Group (2002) Endocrine responsiveness and tailoring adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal lymph node-negative breast cancer: a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 94: 1054–1065Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ihemelandu CU, Leffall Jr LD, Dewitty RL, et al. (2007) Molecular breast cancer subtypes in premenopausal and postmenopausal African-American women: age-specific prevalence and survival. J Surg Res 143: 109–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Imai A, Sugiyama M, Furui T, et al. (2007) Direct protection by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog from doxorubicin-induced granulosa cell damage. Gynecol Obstet Invest 63(2): 102–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ives A, Saunders C, Bulsara M, et al. (2007) Pregnancy after breast cancer: population based study. BMJ 334: 194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Johnson SM, Shaw JA, Walker RA (2002) Sporadic breast cancer in young women: prevalence of loss of heterozygosity at p53, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Int J Cancer 98: 205–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Joly F, Espie M, Marty M, et al. (2000) Long-term quality of life in premenopausal women with node negative localized breast cancer with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Br J Cancer 83: 577–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kim J, Kwak B, Lee J, et al. (2007) Do very young Korean breast cancer patients have worse outcomes? Ann Surg Oncol 14: 3385–3391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Knauer M, Mook S, Rutgers EJ, et al. (2010) The predictive value of the 70-gene signature for adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 120: 655–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kollias J, Elston CW, Ellis IO, et al. (1997) Early-onset breast cancer. Histopathological and prognostic considerations. Br J Cancer 75: 1318–1323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kranick JA, Schaefer C, Rowel S (2010) Is pregnancy after breast cancer safe? Breast J 16(4): 404–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kroman N, Holtveg H, Wohlfahrt J, et al. (2004) Effect of breast-conserving therapy versus radical mastectomy on prognosis for young women with breast carcinoma. Cancer 100(4): 688–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kroman N, Jensen M-B, Wohlfahrt J, et al. (2000) Factors influencing the effect of age on prognosis in breast cancer: population based study/Commentary: much still to learn about relations between tumour biology, prognosis, and treatment outcome in early breast cancer. BMJ 320: 474–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kroman N, Wohlfahrt J, Andersen KW, et al. (1997) Time since childbirth and prognosis in primary breast cancer: population based study. BMJ 315: 851–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Krychman ML, King T (2006) Pregnancy after breast cancer: a case study revolving the reproductive challenge with a gestational surrogate. Breast J 12: 363–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kurtz JM, Jacquemier J, Amalric R, et al. (1990) Why are local recurrences after breast-conservating therapy more frequent in younger patients? J Clin Oncol 8(4): 591–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lai H, Lin L, Nadji M, et al. (2002) Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and early onset breast cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 1: 31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lammers EJR, Huibers P, van der Sangen MJC, et al. (2010) Factors contributing of improved local control after mastectomy in patients with breast cancer aged 40 years or younger. Breast 19: 44–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Largillier R, Savignoni A, Gliogorov J, et al. (2009) Prognostic role of pregnancy occurring before or after treatment of early breast cancer patients ages < 35 years: a GET(N)A Working Group analysis. Cancer 115(22): 5155–5165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lee SJ, Schover LR, Partridge AH, et al. (2006) American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations on fertility preservation in cancer patients. ASCO recommendations on fertility preservation in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 24(18): 2917–2931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lin CH, Liau JY, Lu YS, et al. (2009) Molecular subtypes of breast cancer emerging in young women in Taiwan: evidence for more than just westernization as a reason for the disease in Asia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18: 1807–1814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Malone KE, Daling JR, Doody DR, et al. (2006) Prevalence and predictors of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population-based study of breast cancer in white and black American women ages 35 to 64 years. Cancer Res 66(16): 8297–8308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Malone KE, Daling JR, Thompson JD, et al. (1998) BRCA1 mutations and breast cancer in the general population: analyses in women before age 35 years and in women before age 45 years with first-degree family history. JAMA 279(12): 922–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Martin M, Pienkowski T, Mackey J, et al. (2005) Adjuvant docetaxel for node-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 352(22): 2302–2313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Martinez-Burgos M, Herrero L, Megías D, et al. (2011) Vitrification versus slow freezing of oocytes: effects on morphologic appearance, meiotic spindle configuration, and DNA damage. Fertil Steril 95(1): 374–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Meijers-Heijboer H, Brekelmans CT, Menke-Pluymers M, et al. (2003) Use of genetic testing and prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy in women with breast or ovarian cancer from families with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. J Clin Oncol 21(9): 1675–1681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Meirow D, Levron J, Eldar-Geva T, et al. (2005) Pregnancy after transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in a patient with ovarian failure after chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 353(3): 318–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Meistrich ML (1994) Failure to demonstrate hormonal protection of chemotherapy-induced fertility reduction in female rats. Reprod Toxicol 8(3): 277–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Meistrich ML, Shetty G (2008) Hormonal suppression for fertility preservation in males and females. Reproduction 136(6): 691–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mignot L, Morvan F, Berdah J, et al. (1986) Pregnancy after treated breast cancer. Results of a case-control study [In French]. Presse Med 15: 1961–1964Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Millikan R, Newman B, Tse C-K, et al. (2008) Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 109: 123–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mook S, Schmidt MK, Viale G, et al. (2009) The 70-gene prognosis-signature predicts disease outcome in breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes in an independent validation study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 116: 295–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Morita Y, Perez GI, Paris F, et al. (2000) Oocyte apoptosis is suppressed by disruption of the acid sphingomyelinase gene or by sphingosine-1-phosphate therapy. Nat Med 6(10): 1109–1114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nixon AJ, Neuberg D, Hayes DF, et al. (1994) Relationship of patient age to pathologic features of the tumor and prognosis for patients with stage I and II breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 12: 888–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nixon AJ, Schnitt SJ, Gelman R, et al. (1996) Relationship of tumor grade to other pathologic features and to treatment outcome of patients with early stage breast carcinoma treated with breast-conserving therapy. Cancer 78(7): 1426–1431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Noyes RD, Spanos WJ Jr, Montague ED (1982) Breast cancer in women aged 30 and under. Cancer 49: 1302–1307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    O’Neill SC, Rini C, Goldsmith, et al. (2009) Distress among women receiving uninformative BRCA 1/2 results: 12-month outcomes. Psychooncology 18: 1088–1096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Oktay K, Buyuk E, Rodriguez-Wallberg KA, et al. (2010) In vitro maturation improves oocyte or embryo cryopreservation outcome in breast cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation. Reprod Biomed Online 20(5): 634–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Oktay K, Buyuk E, Veeck L, et al. (2004) Embryo development after heterotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Lancet 363(9412): 837–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Oktay K, Cil AP, Bang H (2006) Efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 86(1): 70–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Oktay K, Economos K, Kan M, et al. (2001) Endocrine function and oocyte retrieval after autologous transplantation of ovarian cortical strips to the forearm. JAMA 286(12): 1490–1493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Oktay K, Karlikaya G (2000) Ovarian function after transplantation of frozen, banked autologous ovarian tissue. N Engl J Med 342(25): 1919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Oktay K, Sönmezer M, Oktem O, et al. (2007) Absence of conclusive evidence for the safety and efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment in protecting against chemotherapy-induced gonadal injury. Oncologist 12(9): 1055–1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Olivennes F, Aubard Y (2002) Treatment of cancer in women and fertility preservation. Bull Cancer 89(9): 786–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Paik S, Shak S, Tang G, et al. (2004) A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 351: 2817–2826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Paik S, Tang G, Shak S, et al. (2006) Gene expression and benefit of chemotherapy in women with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 24: 3726–3734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Perez-Fidalgo JA, Roselló S, García-Garré E, et al. (2010) Incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in hormone-sensitive breast cancer patients: the impact of addition of taxanes to anthracycline-based regimens. Breast Cancer Res Treat 120(1): 245–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Perou CM, Sorlie T, Eisen MB, et al. (2000) Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature 406: 747–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Pfeiler G (2010) Impact of BMI on endocrine therapy in premenopausal breast cancer patients on analysis of the ABCSG-12 Trial, ASCO 2010Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Phipps AI, Buist DS, Malone KE, et al. (2010) Family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives and triple-negative breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res TreatGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Procter M, Leyland-Jones B, et al. (2005) Trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 353: 1659–1672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Querzoli P, Albonico G, di Iasio MG, et al. (2001) Biophenotypes and survival of BRCA1 and TP53 deleted breast cancer in young women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 66: 135–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Recchia F, Saggio G, Amiconi G, et al. (2006) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues added to adjuvant chemotherapy protect ovarian function and improve clinical outcomes in young women with early breast carcinoma. Cancer 106(3): 514–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Regan MM, Pagani O, Walley B, et al. (2008) Premenopausal endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: who receives chemotherapy? Ann Oncol 19: 1231–1241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Reh A, Oktem O, Oktay K (2008) Impact of breast cancer chemotherapy on ovarian reserve: a prospective observational analysis by menstrual history and ovarian reserve markers. Fertil Steril 90(5): 1635–1639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ries L, Melbert D, Krapcho M, et al. (2008) SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2005. National cancer Institute; Bethesda, MD: http://seercancergov/csr/1975_2005/, based on November 2007 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER websiteGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Rosen PP, Lesser ML, Kinne DW, Beattie EJ (1984) Breast carcinoma in women 35 years of age or younger. Ann Surg 199(2): 133–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rosendahl M, Loft A, Byskov AG, et al. (2006) Biochemical pregnancy after fertilization of an oocyte aspirated from a heterotopic autotransplant of cryopreserved ovarian tissue: case report. Hum Reprod 21(8): 2006–2009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Roux C, Amiot C, Agnani G, et al. (2010) Live birth after ovarian tissue autograft in a patient with sickle cell disease treated by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Fertil Steril 93(7): 2413 e15–e19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Rouzier R, Perou CM, Symmans WF, et al. (2005) Breast cancer molecular subtypes respond differently to preoperative chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res 11: 5678–5685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Salumets A, Suikkari AM, Mäkinen S, et al. (2006) Frozen embryo transfers: implications of clinical and embryological factors on the pregnancy outcome. Hum Reprod 21(9): 2368–2374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Sankila R, Heinavaara S, Hakulinen T (1994) Survival of breast cancer patients after subsequent term pregnancy: “healthy mother effect“. Am J Obstet Gynecol 170: 818–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Schmitt SJ, Abner A, Gelman R, et al. (1994) The relation-ship between microscopic margins of resection and the risk of local recurrence in patients with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Cancer 74: 1746–751Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Schover LR, Rybicki LA, Martin BA, et al. (1999) Having children after cancer. A pilot survey of survivors’ attitudes and experiences. Cancer 86(4): 697–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    SFSPM (2004) Grossesse après cancer du sein. In: F. Abel-Decollogne, A. Lessur, N. Mallol, M. Mugnoz (eds) 26e Journée de la SFSPM, 6 novembre 2004Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Shalom-Paz E, Almog B, Shehata F, et al. (2010) Fertility preservation for breast-cancer patients using IVM followed by oocyte or embryo vitrification. Reprod Biomed Online 21(4): 566–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Siegel K, Gluhoski V, Gorey E (1999) Age-related distress among young women with breast cancer. J Psychosoc Oncol 17(1): 1–20Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Solin LJ, Orel SG, Hwang WT, et al. (2008) Relationship of breast magnetic resonance imaging to outcome after breast-conservation treatment with radiation for women with early-stage invasive breast carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ. J Clin Oncol 26: 386–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sonmezer M, Oktay K (2006) Fertility preservation in young women undergoing breast cancer therapy. Oncologist 11(5): 422–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sorlie T, Perou CM, Tibshirani R, et al. (2001) Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 10869–10874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sorlie T, Tibshirani R, Parker J, et al. (2003) Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 8418–8423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Sotiriou C, Wirapati P, Loi S, et al. (2006) Gene expression profiling in breast cancer: understanding the molecular basis of histologic grade to improve prognosis. J Natl Cancer Inst 98: 262–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Spica L, Bendiane MK, Perretti-Wattell P, et al. (2010) L’expérience de la douleur parmi des femmes atteintes d’un cancer du sein (cohorte Ellipse). Bull Cancer 97: 909–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Swain SM, Land SR, Ritter MW, et al. (2009) Amenorrhea in premenopausal women on the doxorubicin-and-cyclophosphamide-followed-by-docetaxel arm of NSABP B-30 trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 113(2): 315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Tham YL, Sexton K, Weiss H, et al. (2007) The rates of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by a taxane. Am J Clin Oncol 30(2): 126–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Thewes B, Meiser B, Rickard J, et al. (2003) The fertility-and menopause-related information needs of younger women with a diagnosis of breast cancer: a qualitative study. Psychooncology 12(5): 500–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Thürlimann B, Price KN, Gelber RD, et al. (2009) Is chemotherapy necessary for premenopausal women with lower-risk node positive, endocrine responsive breast cancer? 10-Year update of International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial 11-93. Breast Cancer Res Treat 113: 137–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Touboul E, Buffat L, Belkacémi Y, et al. (1999) Local recurrences and distant metastases after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43(1): 25–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Turnbull L, Brown S, Harvey I, et al. (2010) Comparative effectiveness of MRI in breast cancer (COMICE) trial: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 375: 563–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Van den Hurk CJ, Mols F, Vingerhoets A, et al. (2010) Impact of alopecia and scalp cooling on the well being of breast cancer patients. Psychooncology 19: 701–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Van der Leest M, Evers L, van der Sangen MJC, et al. (2007) The safety of breast-conserving therapy in patients with breast cancer aged ≤ 40 years. Cancer 109: 1957–1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Van der Sangen MJC, Van de Wiel FMM, Poortmans PMP, et al. (2010) Are breast conservation and mastectomy equally effective in the treatment of young women with early breast cancer? Long-term results of a population-based cohort of 1,451 patients aged ≤ 40 years. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1127: 207–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    van Dongen JA, Voogd AC, Fentiman IS, et al. (2000) Long-term results of a randomized trial comparing breast-conserving therapy with mastectomy: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 10801 trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 92(14): 1143–1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    van’t Veer LJ, Dai H, van de Vijver MJ, et al. (2002) Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer. Nature 415: 530–536Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Varga D, Koenig J, Kuhr K, et al. (2010) Comparison of early onset breast cancer patients to older premenopausal breast cancer patients. Arch Gynecol Obstet 282: 427–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Velentgas P, Daling JR, Malone KE, et al. (1999) Pregnancy after breast carcinoma: outcomes and influence on mortality. Cancer 85: 2424–2432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Vincini F, Recht A, Abner A, et al. (1990) The association between very young age and recurrence in the breast in PTS treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT). Int J Radiat Oncol Biolog Physics 19(Suppl 1): 132Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Von Schoultz E, Johansson H, Wilking N, et al. (1995) Influence of prior and subsequent pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. J Clin Oncol 13: 430–434Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Voogd AC, Nielsen M, Peterse JL, et al. (2001) Differences in risk factors for local and distant recurrence after breast-conserving therapy or mastectomy for stage I and II breast cancer: pooled results of two large European Randomized Trials. JCO 19(6): 1688–1697Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Vrieling C, Collette L, Fourquet A, et al. (2000) The influence of patient, tumor and treatment factors on the cosmetic results after breast-conserving therapy in the EORTC ‘boost vs. no boost’ trial. EORTC Radiotherapy and Breast Cancer Cooperative Groups. Radiother Oncol 55(3): 219–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Walker RA, Lees E, Webb MB, Dearing SJ (1996) Breast carcinomas occuring in young women (< 35 years) are different. Br J Cancer 74: 1796–1800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Wang Y, Klijn JG, Zhang Y, et al. (2005) Gene-expression profiles to predict distant metastasis of lymph-node-negative primary breast cancer. Lancet 365: 671–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Weber-Mangal S, Sinn HP, Popp S, et al. (2003) Breast cancer in young women (≤ 35 years): genomic aberrations detected by comparative genomic hybridization. Int J Cancer 1107: 583–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Weiss J, Poppelreuter M, Bartsch H (2009) Cognitive deficits as long-term side-effects of adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients: ’subjective’ complaints and ‘objective’ neuropsychological test results. Psychooncology 1818: 775–778Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Werkoff G, Morel O, Malartic C, et al. (2008) Pregnancy after breast cancer: the obstetricians’ point of view. Literature review. Gynecol Obstet Fertil 36(10): 1022–1029Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Winchester DP, Osteen RT, Menck HR (1996) The National Cancer Data Base report on breast carcinoma characteristics and outcome in relation to age. Cancer 78: 1838–1843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Wong-Kim EC, Bloom JR (2005) Depression experienced by young women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Psychooncology 14: 564–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Zebrack B (2009) Information and service needs for young adult cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer 17: 349–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Zhou P, Gautam S, Recht A (2007) Factors affecting outcome for young women with early stage invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 101: 51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Mann RM, Kuhl CK, Kinkel K, Boetes C (2008) Breast MRI: guidelines from the European Society of Breast Imaging. Eur Radiol. 18(7):1307–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar

Références électroniques

  1. 187.
    HAS 2010. Place de l’IRM mammaire dans le bilan d’extension locorégional préthérapeutique du cancer du sein. Haute Autorité de santé, mars 2010. www.has-sante.fr
  2. 188.
    INCa 2010. Recommandations de l’INCa: chirurgie prophylactique des cancers avec prédisposition génétique “www.e-cancer.fr“ “http://www.e-cancer.fr/soins/recommandations/oncogenetique

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag France 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. -P. Chauvet
  • M. Debled
  • C. Decanter
  • A. Goncalves
  • R. Largillier
  • P. Pujol
  • P. Saltel
  • P. Taourel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations