, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 100–105 | Cite as

Community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in drought-resistant plants, Moringa spp., in semiarid regions in Madagascar and Uganda

Full Paper


The community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the roots of drought-resistant trees, Moringa spp., was examined in semiarid regions in Madagascar and Uganda. Root samples were collected from 8 individuals of M. hildebrandtii and 2 individuals of M. drouhardii in Madagascar and from 21 individuals of M. oleifera in Uganda. Total DNA was extracted from the root samples, and partial nSSU rDNA of AM fungi was amplified using a universal eukaryotic primer NS31 and an AM fungalspecific primer AM1. The PCR products were cloned and divided by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with HinfI and RsaI. Some representatives in each RFLP types were sequenced, and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis was conducted for the obtained sequences with analogous sequences of AM fungi. The RFLP and phylogenetic analyses showed that AM fungi closely related to Glomus intraradices or G. sinuosum were detected in many samples. The AM fungal groups frequently detected in the Moringa spp. might be widely distributed species in semiarid environments.

Key words

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices Moringa drouhardii Moringa hildebrandtii Moringa oleifera 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Busse MD, Ellis JR (1985) Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus fasciculatum) influence on soybean drought tolerance in high phosphorus soil. Can J Bot 63:2290–2294Google Scholar
  2. Calvente R, Cano C, Ferrol N, Azcon-Aguilar C, Barea JM (2004) Analysing natural diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) plantations and assessment of the effectiveness of native fungal isolates as inoculants for commercial cultivars of olive plantlets. Appl Soil Ecol 26:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Daniell TJ, Husband R, Fitter AH, Young JPW (2001) Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing arable crops. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 36:203–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davies FT, Potter JR, Linderman RG (1993) Drought resistance of mycorrhizal pepper plants independent of leaf P-concentrationresponse in gas exchange and water relations. Physiol Plant 87:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Douhan GW, Petersen C, Bledsoe CS, Rizzo DM (2005) Contrasting root associated fungi of three common oak-woodland plant species based on molecular identification: host specificity or non-specific amplification? Mycorrhiza 15:365–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Helgason T, Daniell TJ, Husband R, Fitter AH, Young JPW (1998) Ploughing up the wood-wide web? Nature (Lond) 394:431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Helgason T, Fitter AH, Young JPW (1999) Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing Hyacinthoides non-scripta (bluebell) in a seminatural woodland. Mol Ecol 8:659–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Husband R, Herre EA, Turner SL, Gallery R, Young JPW (2002) Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and patterns of host association over time and space in a tropical forest. Mol Ecol 11:2669–2678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jahn SAA (1988) Using Moringa seeds as coagulants in developing countries. J Am Water Works Assoc 80:43–50Google Scholar
  11. Kimura M (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16:111–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Makkar HPS, Becker K (1997) Nutrients and antiquality factors in different morphological parts of the Moringa oleifera tree. J Agric Sci 128:311–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Moora M, Öpik M, Sen R, Zobel M (2004) Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities differently influence the seedling performance of rare and common Pulsatilla species. Funct Ecol 18:554–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Munkvold L, Kjöller R, Vestberg M, Rosendahl S, Jakobsen I (2004) High functional diversity within species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 164:357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Muthukumar T, Udaiyan K (2002) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal composition in semi-arid soils of Western Ghats, southern India. Curr Sci 82:624–628Google Scholar
  16. Muthukumar T, Senthilkumar M, Rajangam M, Udaiyan K (2006) Arbuscular mycorrhizal morphology and dark septate fungal associations in medicinal and aromatic plants of Western Ghats, Southern India. Mycorrhiza 17:11–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nelson CE, Safir GR (1982) Increased drought tolerance of mycorrhizal onion plants caused by improved phosphorus nutrition. Planta 154:407–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oba H, Shinozaki N, Oyaizu H, Tawaraya K, Wagatsuma T, Barraquio WL, Saito M (2004) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities associated with some pioneer plants in the lahar area of Mt. Pinaturbo, Philippines. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 50:1195–1203Google Scholar
  19. Odee D (1988) Forest biotechnology research in drylands of Kenya: the development of Moringa species. Dryland Biodivers 2:7–8Google Scholar
  20. Olson ME, Carlquist S (2001) Stem and root anatomical correlations with life form diversity, ecology, and systematics in Moringa (Moringaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 135:315–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Öpik M, Moora M, Liira J, Kõljalg U, Zobel M, Sen R (2003) Divergent arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities colonize roots of Pulsatilla spp. in boreal Scots pine forest and grassland soils. New Phytol 160:581–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Öpik M, Moora M, Liira J, Zobel M (2006) Composition of rootcolonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in different ecosystems around the globe. J Ecol 94:778–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Page RDM (1996) An application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci 12:357–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Panwar J, Vyas A (2002) AM fungi: a biological approach towards conservation of endangered plants in Thar desert, India. Curr Sci 82:576–578Google Scholar
  25. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Simon LM, Lalonde TD, Bruns TD (1992) Specific amplification of 18S fungal ribosomal genes from vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi colonising roots. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:291–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Smith SE, Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal symbiosis, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  28. Stahl PD, Smith WK (1984) Effects of different geographic isolates of Glomus on the water relations of Agropyron smithii. Mycologia 76:261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Subramanian KS, Charest C, Dwyer LM, Hamilton RI (1997) Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae on leaf water potential, sugar content, and P content during drought and recovery of maize. Can J Bot 75:1582–1591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stutz JC, Copeman R, Martin CA, Morton JB (2000) Pattern of species composition and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arid regions of southwestern North America and Namibia, Africa. Can J Bot 78:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tao L, Zhiwei Z (2005) Arbuscular mycorrhizas in a hot and arid ecosystem in southwest China. Appl Soil Ecol 29:135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) Clustal W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequencing weighting, position sequence gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Truog E (1930) The determination of the readily available phosphorus of soils. J Am Soc Agron 22:874–882Google Scholar
  34. Turner NC, Kramer PJ (1980) Adaptation of plants to water and high temperature stress. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Vandenkoornhuyse P, Husband R, Daniell TJ, Watson IJ, Duck JM, Fitter AH, Young JPW (2002) Arbuscular mycorrhizal community composition associated with two plant species in a grassland ecosystem. Mol Ecol 11:1555–1564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. van der Heijden MGA, Boller T, Wiemken A, Sanders IR (1998) Different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species are potential determinants of plant community structure. Ecology 79:2082–2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Weising K, Nybom H, Wolff K, Meyer W (1995) DNA fingerprinting in plants and fungi. CRC Press, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  38. Yamato M, Iwase K (2005) Community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest and introduction of the fungal community into the seedlings of indigenous woody plants. Mycoscience 46:334–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yamato M, Ikeda S, Iwase K (2008) Community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a coastal vegetation on Okinawa Island and effect of the isolated fungi on growth of sorghum under salt-stressed conditions. Mycorrhiza 18:241–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environment DepartmentThe General Environmental Technos, Co., Ltd.OsakaJapan
  2. 2.Forest Development Technological InstituteKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Fungus/Mushroom Resource and Research Center, Faculty of AgricultureTottori UniversityTottoriJapan

Personalised recommendations