Mycoscience

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 273–279 | Cite as

Seasonal and leaf age-dependent changes in occurrence of phyllosphere fungi of giant dogwood

FULL PAPER

Abstract

To examine the relative importance of leaf age and season on the occurrence of phyllosphere fungi, temporal patterns of epiphytic and endophytic phyllosphere fungi of giant dogwood (Swida controversa) were studied with reference to leaf emergence at first occurrence and in the middle of the growing season. A total of 15 and 44 species were isolated from the surface and interior of leaves, respectively. On the leaf surface, detection rate of fungi was consistently 100% and their frequencies increased during the growing season, whereas in the leaf interior, detection rate of fungi and their frequencies were low at leaf emergence and gradually increased during the growing season. Six epiphytic and two endophytic fungi were observed frequently. A white sterile mycelium was frequent only on the surface of newly emerged leaves in the first-order shoot in May. The other 7 species increased during the growing season. The frequencies of Phomopsis sp., Pestalotiopsis sp. 1, and Trichoderma viride were higher on the leaves of first-order shoots than those of higher-order shoots that emerged between July and September, suggesting the possible effects of leaf age on their occurrence. On the other hand, the frequencies of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Clonostachys rosea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Phoma sp. 1 were not different between the first- and higher-order shoots, suggesting the negligible effect of leaf age. The influence of phenological patterns of leaf emergence of deciduous trees on the diversity and composition of assemblages of phyllosphere fungi is discussed.

Key words

Current-year shoot Dogwood Endophyte Epiphyte Season 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Breeze, EM, Dix, NJ 1981Seasonal analysis of the fungal community on Acer platanoides leavesTrans Br Mycol Soc77321328Google Scholar
  2. Cabral, D 1985Phyllosphere of Eucalyptus viminalis: dynamics of fungal populationsTrans Br Mycol Soc85501511Google Scholar
  3. Carroll, G 1995Forest endophytes: pattern and processCan J Bot73S1316S1324Google Scholar
  4. Dix, NJ, Webster, J 1995Fungal ecologyChapman & HallLondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Harley, JL, Waid, JS 1955A method of studying active mycelia on living roots and other surfaces in the soilTrans Br Mycol Soc38104118Google Scholar
  6. Hata, K, Futai, K, Tsuda, M 1998Seasonal and needle age-dependent changes of the endophytic mycobiota in Pinus thunbergii and Pinus densiflora needlesCan J Bot76245250Google Scholar
  7. Hogg, BM, Hudson, HJ 1966Micro-fungi on leaves of Fagus sylvatica. I. The micro-fungal successionTrans Br Mycol Soc49185192Google Scholar
  8. Kaneko, R, Kakishima, M, Tokumasu, S 2003The seasonal occurrence of endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella buna, in Japanese beech, Fagus crenataMycoscience44277281Google Scholar
  9. Kikuzawa, K 1983Leaf survival of woody plants in deciduous broad-leaved forests. 1. Tall treesCan J Bot6121332139Google Scholar
  10. Kinkel, LL, Andrews, JH 1988Disinfestation of living leaves by hydrogen peroxideTrans Br Mycol Soc91523528Google Scholar
  11. Kodani, J, Togashi, K 1992Leaf expansion and shoot elongation of Cornus controversa HemsleyJpn J Ecol42115123Google Scholar
  12. Kodani, J, Togashi, K 1995Foliage productivity and winter bud formation in relation to twig growth pattern in Cornus controversa HemsleyJpn J Ecol45237245Google Scholar
  13. Osono, T 2002Phyllosphere fungi on leaf litter of Fagus crenata: occurrence, colonization, and successionCan J Bot80460469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Osono, T 2005Colonization and succession of fungi during decomposition of Swida controversa leaf litterMycologia97589597Google Scholar
  15. Osono, T, Mori, A 2004Distribution of phyllosphere fungi within the canopy of giant dogwoodMycoscience45161168Google Scholar
  16. Osono, T, Takeda, H 2001Organic chemical and nutrient dynamics in decomposing beech leaf litter in relation to fungal ingrowth and succession during three year decomposition processes in a cool temperate deciduous forest in JapanEcol Res16649670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Osono, T, Bhatta, BK, Takeda, H 2004aPhyllosphere fungi on living and decomposing leaves of giant dogwoodMycoscience453541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Osono, T, Mori, A, Koide, K 2004bDefoliation of Giant dogwood (Swida controversa) caused by zonate leaf blightAppl For Sci13161164Google Scholar
  19. Petrini, O 1991

    Fungal endophytes of tree leaves

    Andrews, JHHirano, SS eds. Microbial ecology of leavesSpringerNew York179197
    Google Scholar
  20. Ruscoe, QW 1971Mycoflora of living and dead leaves of Nothofagus truncataTrans Br Mycol Soc56463474Google Scholar
  21. Sahashi, N, Kubono, T, Miyasawa, Y, Ito, S 1999Temporal variations in isolation frequency of endophytic fungi of Japanese beechCan J Bot77197202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sahashi, N, Miyasawa, Y, Kubono, T, Ito, S 2000Colonization of beech leaves by two endophytic fungi in northern JapanFor Pathol307786Google Scholar
  23. Sieber, TN, Hugentobler, C 1987Endophytische Pilze in Blättern und Ästen gesunder und geschädigter Buchen (Fagus sylvatica LEur J For Pathol17411425Google Scholar
  24. Stone, JK 1987Initiation and development of latent infections by Rhabdocline parkeri on Douglas-firCan J Bot6526142621Google Scholar
  25. Wildman, HG, Parkinson, D 1978Microfungal succession on living leaves of Populus tremuloidesCan J Bot5728002811Google Scholar
  26. Wilson, D, Carroll, GC 1994Infection studies of Discula quercina, an endophyte of Quercus garryanaMycologia86635647Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Division of Environmental Science and Technology, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations