pp 1–9 | Cite as

Aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms and antibiotic sensitivity of odontogenic maxillofacial infections

  • Emmanuel López-González
  • Marlen Vitales-Noyola
  • Ana María González-Amaro
  • Verónica Méndez-González
  • Antonio Hidalgo-Hurtado
  • Rosaura Rodríguez-Flores
  • Amaury Pozos-GuillénEmail author
Original Article


This study aimed to identify the aerobic and anaerobic causal microorganisms of odontogenic infections and their antibiotic sensitivity. Purulent exudates were taken from patients with odontogenic infections by transdermal puncture, and aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms were identified using biochemical tests. Susceptibility to antibiotics was tested using the Kirby-Bauer method; the inhibition halos were measured according to NCCLS, and based on the results, the microorganisms were classified as susceptible, intermediate or resistant to each antibiotic. Frequencies of species and percentages of resistance were calculated. The microorganisms associated with odontogenic infections were principally anaerobic (65.3% anaerobic vs. 35.7% aerobic), and the susceptibility to antibiotics was higher in anaerobic than in aerobic microorganisms. The majority of isolated microorganisms (82%) showed susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The causal agents of odontogenic infections were anaerobic microorganisms, which exhibited high resistance to antibiotics.


Microorganism Antibiotic Odontogenic infection Aerobic Anaerobic 



This study was partially supported by PFCE-UASLP 2018 grant.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Taub D, Yampolsky A, Diecidue R, Gold L. Controversies in the management of oral and maxillofacial infections. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2017;4:465–73.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McDonald C, Hennedige A, Henry A, et al. Management of cervicofacial infections: a survey of current practice in maxillofacial units in the UK. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;9:940–5.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The Japanese Association for Infectious Disease/Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, The JAID/JSC Committee for Developing Treatment Guide and Guidelines for Clinical Management of Infectious Disease, Odontogenic Infection Working Group. The 2016 JAID/JSC guidelines for clinical management of infectious disease-Odontogenic infections. J Infect Chemother. 2018;24:320–4.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bahl R, Sandhu S, Singh K, Sahai N, Gupta M. Odontogenic infections: microbiology and management. Contemp Clin Dent. 2014;3:307–11.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heim N, Faron A, Wiedemeyer V, Reich R, Martini M. Microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity of head and neck space infections of odontogenic origin. Differences in inpatient and outpatient management. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2017;45:1731–5.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tung-Yiu W, Jehn-Shyun H, Ching-Hung C, Hung-An C. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic origin: a report of 11 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000;12:1347–52. discussion 1353.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gore MR. Odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord. 2018;18:14.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arora N, Juneja R, Meher R. Complication of an odontogenic infection to an orbital abscess: the role of a medical fraudster (“Quack”). Iran J Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;30:181–4.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Farmahan S, Tuopar D, Ameerally PJ, Kotecha R, Sisodia B. Microbiological examination and antibiotic sensitivity of infections in the head and neck. Has anything changed? Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;52:632–5.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chunduri NS, Madasu K, Goteki VR, Karpe T, Reddy H. Evaluation of bacterial spectrum of orofacial infections and their antibiotic susceptibility. Ann Maxillofac Surg. 2012;2:46–50.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Walia IS, Borle RM, Mehendiratta D, Yadav AO. Microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity of head and neck space infections of odontogenic origin. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2014;1:16–21.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tüzüner Öncül AM, Uzunoğlu E, Karahan ZC, Aksoy AM, Kişnişci R, Karaahmetoğlu Ö. Detecting gram-positive anaerobic cocci directly from the clinical samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in odontogenic infections. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;73:259–66.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Singh M, Kambalimath DH, Gupta KC. Management of odontogenic space infection with microbiology study. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2014;13:133–9.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Performed standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Approved standard M2-A8. 8th ed. Pa: NCCLS, Wayne; 2003.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Babu VR, Ikkurthi S, Perisetty DK, Babu KAS, Rasool M, Shaik S. A prospective comparison of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool for maxillofacial space infections. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2018;8:343–8.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nadig K, Taylor NG. Management of odontogenic infection at a district general hospital. Br Dent J. 2018;224:962–6.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bakathir AA, Moos KF, Ayoub AF, Bagg J. Factors contributing to the spread of odontogenic infections: a prospective pilot study. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2009;9:296–304.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chang JS, Yoo KH, Yoon SH, et al. Odontogenic infection involving the secondary fascial space in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: a clinical comparative study. J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;39:175–81.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lin RH, Huang CC, Tsou YA, et al. Correlation between imaging characteristics and microbiology in patients with deep neck infections: a retrospective review of one hundred sixty-one cases. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2014;15:794–9.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shakya N, Sharma D, Newaskar V, Agrawal D, Shrivastava S, Yadav R. Epidemiology, microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity of odontogenic space infections in Central India. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2018;3:324–31.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fu B, McGowan K, Sun H, Batstone M. Increasing use of intensive care unit for odontogenic infection over one decade: Incidence and predictors. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bhagania M, Youseff W, Mehra P, Figueroa R. Treatment of odontogenic infections: an analysis of two antibiotic regimens. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2018;8:78–81.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mathew GC, Ranganathan LK, Gandhi S, et al. Odontogenic maxillofacial space infections at a tertiary care center in North India: a five-year retrospective study. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:e296–302.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shah A, Ramola V, Nautiyal V. Aerobic microbiology and culture sensitivity of head and neck space infection of odontogenic origin. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2016;7:56–61.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hyun SY, Oh HK, Ryu JY, Kim JJ, Cho JY, Kim HM. Closed suction drainage for deep neck infections. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2014;42:751–6.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fating NS, Saikrishna D, Vijay Kumar GS, Shetty SK, Raghavendra Rao M. Detection of bacterial flora in orofacial space infections and their antibiotic sensitivity profile. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2014;13:525–32.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gómez-Arámbula H, Hidalgo-Hurtado A, Rodríguez-Flores R, González-Amaro AM, Garrocho-Rangel A, Pozos-Guillén A. Moxifloxacin versus clindamycin/ceftriaxone in the management of odontogenic maxillofacial infectious processes: a preliminary, intrahospital, controlled clinical trial. J Clin Exp Dent. 2015;7:e634–9.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Farmahan S, Tuopar D, Ameerally PJ. A study to investigate changes in the microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity of head and neck space infections. Surgeon. 2015;13:316–20.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Davis K, Gill D, Mouton CP, Southerland J, Halpern L. An unusual odontogenic infection due to clostridium subterminale in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and review of the literature. IDCases. 2018;12:34–40.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tancawan AL, Pato MN, Abidin KZ, et al. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for the treatment of odontogenic infections: a randomised study comparing efficacy and tolerability versus Clindamycin. Int J Dent. 2015;2015:472470.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dar-Odeh NS, Abu-Hammad OA, Al-Omiri MK, Khraisat AS, Shehabi AA. Antibiotic prescribing practices by dentists: a review. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2010;6:301–6.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sweeney LC, Dave J, Chambers PA, Heritage J. Antibiotic resistance in general dental practice—a cause for concern? J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:567–76.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Svensäter G, Bergenholtz G. Biofilm in endodontic infections. Endodontic Topics. 2004;9:27–36.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of The Nippon Dental University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmanuel López-González
    • 1
  • Marlen Vitales-Noyola
    • 1
  • Ana María González-Amaro
    • 1
  • Verónica Méndez-González
    • 1
  • Antonio Hidalgo-Hurtado
    • 2
  • Rosaura Rodríguez-Flores
    • 3
  • Amaury Pozos-Guillén
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Endodontics Posgraduated Program, Faculty of DentistrySan Luis Potosí UniversitySan Luis PotosíMexico
  2. 2.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryHospital “Ignacio Morones Prieto”San Luis PotosíMexico
  3. 3.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryHospital No. 50 of Mexican Social Security InstituteSan Luis PotosíMexico
  4. 4.Basic Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of DentistrySan Luis Potosi University, Zona UniversitariaSan Luis PotosíMexico

Personalised recommendations