Comparison of three block bone substitutes for bone regeneration: long-term observation in the beagle dog
- 383 Downloads
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of three types of block bone substitute material on bone formation and graft resorption in vivo. Standardized bone defects (n = 4 defects/animal) were created in the calvaria of nine dogs. Block bone substitutes made of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and a mixture alpha-TCP and hydroxyapatite (α-TCP/HA) were inserted into the bone defects. A fourth defect was left untreated (empty). All sites were covered with a collagenous membrane. Block biopsies were harvested at 3, 6 and 12 months post-implantation and analyzed by micro-CT and histology. Biomaterial absorption was minimal and incorporation within the defect margin was good for all biomaterials. However, β-TCP demonstrated a relatively greater volume of new bone formation and less residual material volume when compared with DBBM and α-TCP/HA. Conversely, α-TCP/HA showed higher osteoconductive potential and a greater new bone area compared with the other two biomaterials. The block bone substitutes used in the present in vivo study showed advantageous in terms of maintenance of their original form in bony defect. However, the positive impact of all biomaterials on new bone formation and replacement of bone was minor even at 12 months. These findings indicate that block bone substitutes are not well suited to vertical bone augmentation. Further investigations are required to improve the insufficient new bone volume for promising clinical results.
KeywordsBlock bone substitutes Deproteinized bovine bone mineral Alpha-tricalcium phosphate Beta-tricalcium phosphate Canine calvaria
We thank Elizabeth Finnie, PhD, from Edanz Group (http://www.edanzediting.com/ac) for editing a draft of this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.
- 12.Zitzmann NU, Schärer P, Marinello CP, Schüpbach P, Berglundh T. Alveolar ridge augmentation with Bio-Oss: a histologic study in humans. Int J Periodontics Restor Dent. 2001;21:288–95.Google Scholar
- 17.Kim JW, Jung IH, Lee KI, Jung UW, Kim CS, Choi SH, Cho KS, Yun JH. Volumetric bone regenerative efficacy of biphasic calcium phosphate–collagen composite block loaded with rhBMP-2 in vertical bone augmentation model of a rabbit calvarium. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2012;100:3304–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Hirota M, Matsui Y, Mizuki N, Kishi T, Watanuki K, Ozawa T, Fukui T, Shoji S, Adachi M, Monden Y, Iwai T, Tohnai I. Combination with allogenic bone reduces early absorption of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and enhances the role as a bone regeneration scaffold. Experimental animal study in rat mandibular bone defects. Dent Mater J. 2009;28:153–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Yamada M, Shiota M, Yamashita Y, Kasugai S. Histological and histomorphometrical comparative study of the degradation and osteoconductive characteristics of α- and β-tricalcium phosphate in block grafts. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2007;82:1139–48.Google Scholar
- 30.Prolo DJ, Pedrotti PW, Burres KP, Oklund S. Superior osteogenesis in transplanted allogeneic canine skull following chemical sterilization. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982;168:230–42.Google Scholar
- 31.Urist MR, Nilsson O, Rasmussen J, Hirota W, Lovell T, Schmalzreid T, Finerman GA. Bone regeneration under the influence of a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) beta tricalcium phosphate (TCP) composite in skull trephine defects in dogs. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1987;214:295–304.Google Scholar