Stain susceptibility of composite and ceramic CAD/CAM blocks versus direct resin composites with different resinous matrices
To evaluate the stain susceptibility of CAD/CAM blocks and direct composite after long term exposure to various staining agents. 40 disk-shaped samples were fabricated from each of nine materials; six CAD/CAM (Vitablocs Mark II, Paradigm MZ100, Experimental Vita Hybrid Ceramic, Vita Enamic, Experimental Kerr and Lava Ultimate) and three direct composites (Filtek Supreme, Venus Diamond and Filtek Silorane). Samples were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) according to different staining solutions (distilled water, tea, red wine, coffee and artificial saliva). Initial L*a*b* values were assessed using a calibrated digital spectrophotometer. Specimens were immersed in staining solutions and stored in an incubator at 37 °C for 120 days. L*a*b* values were assessed again and color change (∆E) was calculated as difference between recorded L*a*b* values. ANOVA, and Duncan test were used to identify differences between groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences in ∆E values were detected between materials (p = 0.000). Among all staining solutions, the highest ∆E value was observed with red wine. The new CAD/CAM blocks (Vita Enamic, Vita Hybrid Ceramic and Lava Ultimate) showed the highest resistance to staining compared to the MZ100 composite resin blocks. Filtek Silorane, a direct composite, showed high stain resistance values compared to CAD/CAM materials and other direct composites. Ceramic and composite CAD/CAM blocks had lower staining susceptibility than methacrylate based direct composite. Staining susceptibility of the new resin based CAD/CAM materials Vita Enamic and Lava Ultimate was comparable to feldspathic ceramic blocks (Vitablocs Mark II). Filtek Silorane showed promising results that were comparable to some CAD/CAM blocks.
KeywordsCAD/CAM materials Staining Composite Ceramic Color
The authors would like to thank 3M/ESPE, Vita Zahnfabrik AG, Heraeus Kulzer and Kerr Corporation, for their support with the materials used in this study. The post of the principle investigator was fully funded by the Saudi Ministry of Higher Education.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Um CM, Ruyter IE. Staining of resin-based veneering materials with coffee and tea. Quintessence Inter. 1991;22:377–86.Google Scholar
- 19.Krejci I, Lutz F, Reimer M. Wear of CAD/CAM ceramic inlays: restorations, opposing cusps, and luting cements. Quintessence Inter. 1994;25:199–207.Google Scholar
- 24.Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM Restorative. Technical product Profile. 2011, 3M ESPE.Google Scholar
- 26.Ardu S, Braut V, Gutemberg D, Krejci I, Dietschi D, Feilzer AJ. A long-term laboratory test on staining susceptibility of esthetic composite resin materials. Quintessence Inter. 2010;41:695–702.Google Scholar
- 27.Wyszechi G, Stiles WS. Color science: concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulas. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 1982. p. 13–116.Google Scholar
- 30.Technical Report: CIE. Improvement to industrial color difference equation. Vienna, Austria: CIE Central Bureau; 2001 (CIE Publication. No. 142).Google Scholar
- 33.Kuenhi RC, Marcus RT. An experiment in visual scaling of small color differences. Color Res App. 1979;4:83–91.Google Scholar
- 34.Hunter RS. The measurement of appearance. New York: Wiley; 1975. pp. 77–80, 151–152, 225, 334.Google Scholar
- 38.Acar O, Yilmaz B, Altintas SH, Chandrasekaran I, Johnston WM. Color stainability of CAD/CAM and nanocomposite resin materials. J Prosthet Dent. 2015 (in press).Google Scholar
- 39.Lawson NC, Burgess JO. Gloss and stain resistance of ceramic-polymer CAD/CAM restorative blocks. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2015 (in press).Google Scholar