Advertisement

Odontology

, Volume 104, Issue 1, pp 44–52 | Cite as

Effect of 30 % hydrogen peroxide on mineral chemical composition and surface morphology of bovine enamel

  • Santiago González-López
  • Carolina Torres-Rodríguez
  • Victoria Bolaños-Carmona
  • Purificación Sanchez-Sanchez
  • Alejandro Rodríguez-Navarro
  • Pedro Álvarez-Lloret
  • María Domingo Garcia
Original Article

Abstract

A combination of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and gas adsorption techniques was used to characterize the effect of 30 % hydrogen peroxide (HP) on enamel surface. To perform the analyses of AAS, 1 ml of 30 % HP was added to 30 mg of a bovine enamel powder sample (150–200 µm fractions) for times of 5, 20, 60, 90, and 120 min; then 5 ml of the solution was withdrawn after each time period to measure [Ca2+] ions. The remaining powder was recovered and analyzed by FTIR. For SEM and gas adsorption tests, 4 × 4 mm2 enamel sectioned samples were polished and 30 % HP was applied on the surface for the same time periods. AAS data show that 30 % HP treatment mobilized calcium from the enamel at all times studied. FTIR spectra showed that the total amount of phosphate and carbonate mineral contents such as amide I decreased significantly. SEM revealed that randomly distributed areas throughout the smooth enamel surface treatment became rougher and more irregular. These alterations indicate that surface damage increases with increasing durations of HP treatment. Gas adsorption analysis proved that bleached enamel is a typically non-porous material with a small specific surface area which decreases slightly with the 30 % HP treatment. In sum, 30 % HP induced a significant alteration of the organic and mineral part of the enamel, leading to the release of calcium and a rougher, more irregular enamel surface on randomly distributed areas.

Keywords

Hydrogen peroxide Atomic absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Gas adsorption Enamel 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Funding was obtained from projects CGL2011-25906 and UNOV-13-EMERG-08.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Kawamoto K, Tsujimoto Y. Effects of the hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide on tooth bleaching. J Endod. 2004;30:45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Götz H, Duschner H, White DJ, Klukowska MA. Effects of elevated hydrogen peroxide ‘strip’ bleaching on surface and subsurface enamel including subsurface histomorphology, micro-chemical composition and fluorescence changes. J Dent. 2007;35:457–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Efeoglu N, Wood D, Efeoglu C. Microcomputerised tomography evaluation of 10 % carbamide peroxide applied to enamel. J Dent. 2005;33:561–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Joiner A. The bleaching of teeth: a review of the literature. J Dent. 2006;34:412–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goldberg M, Grootveld M, Lynch E. Undesirable and adverse effects of tooth-whitening products: a review. Clin Oral Investig. 2010;14:1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bistey T, Nagy IP, Simó A, Hegedus C. In vitro FTIR study of the effects of hydrogen peroxide on superficial tooth enamel. J Dent. 2007;35:325–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Severcan F, Gokduman K, Dogan A, Bolay S, Gokalp S. Effects of in-office and at-home bleaching on human enamel and dentin: an in vitro application of Fourier transform infrared study. Appl Spectrosc. 2008;62:1274–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Santini A, Pulham CR, Rajab A, Ibbetson R. The effect of a 10 % carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on the phosphate concentration of tooth enamel assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24:220–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buchalla W, Attin T. External bleaching therapy with activation by heat, light or laser: a systematic review. Dent Mater. 2007;23:586–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hannig C, Hamkens A, Becker K, Attin R, Attin T. Erosive effects of different acids on bovine enamel: release of calcium and phosphate in vitro. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:541–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zantner C, Beheim-Schwarzbach N, Neumann K, Kielbassa AM. Surface microhardness of enamel after different home bleaching procedures. J Dent Res. 2007;23:243–50.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sun L, Liang S, Sa Y, Wang Z, Ma X, Jiang T, Wang Y. Surface alteration of human tooth enamel subjected to acidic and neutral 30 % hydrogen peroxide. J Dent. 2011;39:686–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sulieman M, Addy M, MacDonald E, Rees JS. A safety study in vitro for the effects of an in-office bleaching system on the integrity of enamel and dentine. J Dent. 2004;32:581–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rodríguez Navarro AB, Romanek CS, Alvarez Lloret P, Gaines KF. Effect of in ovo exposure to PCBs and Hg on clapper rail bone mineral chemistry from a contaminated Salt Marsh in Coastal Georgia. Env Sci Tech. 2006;40:4936–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sing KSW, Everett DH, Haul RW, Moscou L, Rapierotti RA, Rouquerol J, Siemieniewska T. Reporting physisorption data for gas solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface-area and porosity (recommendations 1984). Pure Appl Chem. 1985;57:603–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Adamson AW, Gast AP. Physical chemistry of surfaces. 6th ed. New York: Wiley; 1997.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gregg SJ, Sing KSW. Adsorption, surface area and porosity. London: Academic Press; 1982.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reis AF, Giannini M, Kavaguchi A, Soares CJ, Line SR. Comparison of microtensile bond strength to enamel and dentin of human, bovine, and porcine teeth. J Adhes Dent. 2004;6:117–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang X, Mihailova B, Klocke A, Fittschen UE, Heidrich S, Hill M, Stosch R, Güttler B, Broekaert JA, Bismayer U. Side effects of a non-peroxide-based home bleaching agent on dental enamel. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009;88:195–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Al-Salehi SK, Wood DJ, Hatton PV. The effect of 24 h non-stop hydrogen peroxide concentration on bovine enamel and dentine mineral content and microhardness. J Dent. 2007;35:845–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee KH, Kim HI, Kim KH, Kwon YH. Mineral loss form bovine enamel by a 30 % hydrogen peroxide solution. J Oral Rehabil. 2006;33:229–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sato C, Rodrigues FA, Garcia DM, Vidal CM, Pashley DH, Tjäderhane L, Carrilho MR, Nascimento FD, Tersariol IL. Tooth bleaching increases dentinal protease activity. J Dent Res. 2013;92:187–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ubaldini AL, Baesso ML, Medina Neto A, Sato F, Bento AC, Pascotto RC. Hydrogen peroxide diffusion dynamics in dental tissues. J Dent Res. 2013;92:661–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Park HJ, Kwon TY, Nam SH, Kim HJ, Kim KH, Kim YJ. Changes in bovine enamel after treatment with a 30 % hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent. Dent Mater J. 2004;23:517–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sa Y, Chen D, Liu Y, Wen W, Xu M, Jiang T, Wang Y. Effects of two in-office bleaching agents with different pH values on enamel surface structure and color: an in situ vs. in vitro study. J Dent. 2012;40(Suppl 1):e26–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jiang T, Ma X, Wang Y, Tong H, Shen X, Hu Y, Hu J. Investigation of the effects of 30 % hydrogen peroxide on human tooth enamel by Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence. J Biomed Opt. 2008;13:014019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zimmerman B, Datko L, Cupelli M, Alapati S, Dean D, Kennedy M. Alteration of dentin-enamel mechanical properties due to dental whitening treatments. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2010;3:339–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fattibene P, Carosi A, De Coste V, Sacchetti A, Nucara A, Postorino P, Dore P. A comparative EPR, infrared and Raman study of natural and deproteinated tooth enamel and dentin. Phys Med Biol. 2005;50:1095–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cazalbou S, Combes C, Eichert D, Rey C, Glimcher MJ. Poorly crystalline apatites: evolution and maturation in vitro and in vivo. J Bone Miner Metab. 2004;22:310–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Amaechi BT, Higham SM, Edgar WM. Factors influencing the development of dental erosion in vitro: enamel type, temperature and exposure time. J Oral Rehabil. 1999;26:624–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Park S, Wang DH, Zhang D, Romberg E, Arola D. Mechanical properties of human enamel as a function of age and location in the tooth. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008;19:2317–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ushigome T, Takemoto S, Hattori M, Yoshinari M, Kawada E, Oda Y. Influence of peroxide treatment on bovine enamel surface—cross sectional analysis. Dent Mater J. 2009;28:315–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nguyen TT, Miller A, Orellana MF. Characterization of the porosity of human dental enamel and shear bond strength in vitro after variable etch times: initial findings using the BET method. Angle Orthod. 2011;81:707–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of The Nippon Dental University 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santiago González-López
    • 1
  • Carolina Torres-Rodríguez
    • 2
  • Victoria Bolaños-Carmona
    • 3
  • Purificación Sanchez-Sanchez
    • 4
  • Alejandro Rodríguez-Navarro
    • 5
  • Pedro Álvarez-Lloret
    • 6
  • María Domingo Garcia
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Dental Therapeutics, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Oral Health, Faculty of DentistryNational University of ColombiaBogotáColombia
  3. 3.Integrated Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  6. 6.Department of Geology, Faculty of GeologyUniversity of OviedoOviedoSpain

Personalised recommendations