, Volume 104, Issue 1, pp 44–52 | Cite as

Effect of 30 % hydrogen peroxide on mineral chemical composition and surface morphology of bovine enamel

  • Santiago González-López
  • Carolina Torres-Rodríguez
  • Victoria Bolaños-Carmona
  • Purificación Sanchez-Sanchez
  • Alejandro Rodríguez-Navarro
  • Pedro Álvarez-Lloret
  • María Domingo Garcia
Original Article


A combination of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and gas adsorption techniques was used to characterize the effect of 30 % hydrogen peroxide (HP) on enamel surface. To perform the analyses of AAS, 1 ml of 30 % HP was added to 30 mg of a bovine enamel powder sample (150–200 µm fractions) for times of 5, 20, 60, 90, and 120 min; then 5 ml of the solution was withdrawn after each time period to measure [Ca2+] ions. The remaining powder was recovered and analyzed by FTIR. For SEM and gas adsorption tests, 4 × 4 mm2 enamel sectioned samples were polished and 30 % HP was applied on the surface for the same time periods. AAS data show that 30 % HP treatment mobilized calcium from the enamel at all times studied. FTIR spectra showed that the total amount of phosphate and carbonate mineral contents such as amide I decreased significantly. SEM revealed that randomly distributed areas throughout the smooth enamel surface treatment became rougher and more irregular. These alterations indicate that surface damage increases with increasing durations of HP treatment. Gas adsorption analysis proved that bleached enamel is a typically non-porous material with a small specific surface area which decreases slightly with the 30 % HP treatment. In sum, 30 % HP induced a significant alteration of the organic and mineral part of the enamel, leading to the release of calcium and a rougher, more irregular enamel surface on randomly distributed areas.


Hydrogen peroxide Atomic absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Gas adsorption Enamel 



Funding was obtained from projects CGL2011-25906 and UNOV-13-EMERG-08.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Society of The Nippon Dental University 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santiago González-López
    • 1
  • Carolina Torres-Rodríguez
    • 2
  • Victoria Bolaños-Carmona
    • 3
  • Purificación Sanchez-Sanchez
    • 4
  • Alejandro Rodríguez-Navarro
    • 5
  • Pedro Álvarez-Lloret
    • 6
  • María Domingo Garcia
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Dental Therapeutics, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Oral Health, Faculty of DentistryNational University of ColombiaBogotáColombia
  3. 3.Integrated Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  6. 6.Department of Geology, Faculty of GeologyUniversity of OviedoOviedoSpain

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