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Changes of cell wall components during embryogenesis of Castanea mollissima

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Abstract

The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) ‘Huaihuang’ was chosen as the experimental material to observe embryogenesis and the dynamic changes of cell wall components during this process. Various developmental stages of embryos, including globular embryos, heart embryos, torpedo embryos and cotyledon embryos, were observed. The results showed that during embryogenesis, cellulose increased, and callose rapidly degraded. In the cell walls of developing embryos, pectic homogalacturonan (HG), especially low-esterified HG, was abundant, suggesting rapid synthesis and de-methyl-esterification of HG. Extensin and galactan increased with the development of the embryos. In contrast, the arabinan epitopes decreased in developing embryos but were more abundant than galactan epitopes at all stages. Xylan epitopes showed explicit boundaries between the outer epidermal wall and the rest of the inner tissues, and the fluorescence intensity of the outer epidermal wall was significantly higher than that of the inner tissues. Furthermore, the results indicated that the outer epidermal wall contained high amounts of cellulose, HG pectin and hemicellulose, especially arabinan and xylan. These results suggested the presence of rapid pectin metabolism, cellulose synthesis, rapid degradation of callose, different distributive patterns and dynamic changes of hemicellulose (galactan, arabinan and xylan) and extensin during embryogenesis. Various cell wall components exist in different tissues of the embryo, and dynamic changes in cell wall components are involved in the embryonic development process.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31270719), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFD1000605), the Project of Construction of Innovative Teams and Teacher Career Development for Universities and Colleges Under Beijing Municipality (IDHT20180509), Beijing Nature Science Foundation (KZ201710020012) and the Supporting Plan for Cultivating High Level Teachers in Colleges and Universities in Beijing (CIT&TCD20180317).

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KF and LQ designed the research and edited the paper; BD performed the main experiments and drafted the paper; QZ, QC and YX revised the paper. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Correspondence to Ling Qin or Kefeng Fang.

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Du, B., Zhang, Q., Cao, Q. et al. Changes of cell wall components during embryogenesis of Castanea mollissima. J Plant Res 133, 257–270 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-020-01170-7

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Keywords

  • Callose
  • Castanea mollissima
  • Cellulose
  • Embryogenesis
  • Hemicellulose
  • Pectin