Salt tolerance mechanisms in three Irano-Turanian Brassicaceae halophytes relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana
Salt tolerance mechanisms were studied in three Irano-Turanian halophytic species from the Brassicaceae (Lepidium latifolium, L. perfoliatum and Schrenkiella parvula) and compared with the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana. According to seed germination under salt stress, L. perfoliatum was the most tolerant species, while L. latifolium and S. parvula were rather susceptible. Contrastingly, based on biomass production L. perfoliatum was more salt sensitive than the other two species. In S. parvula biomass was increased up to 2.8-fold by 100 mM NaCl; no significant growth reduction was observed even when exposed to 400 mM NaCl. Stable activities of antioxidative defense enzymes, nil or negligible accumulation of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, as well as stable membrane integrity in the three halophytes revealed that no oxidative stress occurred in these tolerant species under salt stress. Proline levels increased in response to salt treatment. However, it contributed only by 0.3‒2.0% to the total osmolyte concentration in the three halophytes (at 400 mM NaCl) and even less (0.04%) in the glycophyte, A. thaliana (at 100 mM NaCl). Soluble sugars in all three halophytes and free amino acids pool in S. parvula decreased under salt treatment in contrast to the glycophyte, A. thaliana. The contribution of organic osmolytes to the total osmolyte pool increased by salt treatment in the roots, while decreased in halophyte and glycophyte, A. thaliana leaves. Interestingly, this reduction was compensated by a higher relative contribution of K in the leaves of the halophytes, but of Na in A. thaliana. Taken together, biomass data and biochemical indicators show that S. parvula is more salt tolerant than the two Lepidium species. Our data indicate that L. latifolium, as a perennial halophyte with a large biomass, is highly suitable for both restoration of saline habitats and saline agriculture.
KeywordsAntioxidative defense system Brassicaceae Lepidium latifolium L. Lepidium perfoliatum L. Organic osmolytes Schrenkiella parvula
R.H. and S. B.-R. thank Research Deputy Office, University of Tabriz, Iran for providing a postdoctoral fellowship for S. B.-R.
This work has been supported by the Center for International Scientific Studies & Collaboration (CISSC), Iran. C.P. thanks support from project SAL-CAL-MED from Spanish MICINN BFU2016-75176-R.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
- Akhani H (1988) Plant records from Kavire-Meyghan (Arak), new to Iran. Iranian J Bot 4:105–107Google Scholar
- Akhani H (2016) Plant diversity of saline wetlands and salt marshes of Iran. In: U.S.-Iran Symposium on Wetlands. University of Arizone, Irvine, pp 38–45Google Scholar
- Aronson JA (1989) HALOPH, a database of salt tolerant plants of the world. Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona, TucsonGoogle Scholar
- Benton Jones J Jr (1999) Soil analysis: handbook of reference methods. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Djamali M, Akhani H, Khoshravesh R, Andrieu-Ponel V, Ponel P, Brewer S (2011) Application of the global bioclimatic classification to Iran: implications for understanding the modern vegetation and biogeography. Ecol Medit 37:91–114Google Scholar
- FAO (2000) Global network on integrated soil management for sustainable use of salt-affected soils. Rome. http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/spush. Accessed 5 March 2018
- Ghars MA, Parre E, Debez A, Bordenave M, Richard L, Leport L, Bouchereau A, Savouré A, Abdelly C (2008) Comparative salt tolerance analysis between Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella halophila, with special emphasis on K+/Na+ selectivity and proline accumulation. J Plant Physiol 165:588–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hedge IC (1968) Cruciferae (Lepidium and Arabidopsis). In: Rechinger KH (ed) Flora Iranica, vol 57. Akademische Druck u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz, pp 65–72 , 328–334Google Scholar
- Huang CH, Sun RR, Hu Y, Zeng LP, Zhang N, Cai LM, Zhang Q, Koch MA, Al-Shehbaz I, Edger PP, Pires JC, Tan DY, Zhong Y, Ma H (2016) Resolution of Brassicaceae phylogeny using nuclear genes uncovers nested radiations and supports convergent morphological evolution. Mol Biol Evol 33:394–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Inan G, Zhang Q, Li P, Wang Z, Cao Z, Zhang H, Zhang C, Quist TM, Goodwin SM, Zhu J, Shi H (2004) Salt cress. A halophyte and cryophyte Arabidopsis relative model system and its applicability to molecular genetic analyses of growth and development of extremophiles. Plant Physiol 135:1718–1737CrossRefGoogle Scholar