Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 127, Issue 6, pp 651–660 | Cite as

Polymorphisms of E1 and GIGANTEA in wild populations of Lotus japonicus

  • Tomomi WakabayashiEmail author
  • Hana Oh
  • Masayoshi Kawaguchi
  • Kyuya Harada
  • Shusei Sato
  • Hajime Ikeda
  • Setoguchi Hiroaki
Regular Paper


In plants, timing of flowering is an essential factor that controls the survival rates of descendants. The circadian clock genes E1 and GIGANTEA (GI) play a central role in transmitting signals to FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in leguminous plants. Lotus japonicus is a wild Japanese species that ranges from northern Hokkaido to the southern Ryukyus and exhibits a wide range in terms of the time between seeding and first flowering. In this study, we first identified LjGI and analyzed polymorphisms of LjE1 and LjGI among wild populations covering the entire distribution range of this species in Japan. LjGI had a coding sequence (CDS) length of 3495 bp and included 14 exons. The homologies of DNA and amino acid sequences between LjGI and GmGI were 89 and 88 % (positive rate was 92 %), respectively. LjE1 harbored five nucleic acid changes in a 552 bp CDS, all of which were nonsynonymous; four of the changes were located in the core function area. LjE1 alleles exhibited partial north–south differentiation and non-neutrality. In contrast, the LjGI harbored one synonymous and one nonsynonymous change. Thus, our study suggests that LjE1 may be involved in the control of flowering times, whereas LjGI may be under strong purifying selection.


GIGANTEA E1 Circadian clock Lotus japonicus Nonsynonymous change 



We express our appreciation to the National Bioresource Project (Legume Base), University of Miyazaki, Japan, for providing the seeds of Lotus japonicus, and members of the Setoguchi laboratory for their support. This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Nos. 24247013, 23128508, and 25128708 to H.S and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas, “Genetic Bases for the Evolution of Complex Adaptive Traits” from the Japan Society.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 2043 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 10 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomomi Wakabayashi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hana Oh
    • 2
  • Masayoshi Kawaguchi
    • 2
  • Kyuya Harada
    • 3
  • Shusei Sato
    • 5
  • Hajime Ikeda
    • 4
  • Setoguchi Hiroaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Human and Environmental StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.National Institute Basic BiologyOkazakiJapan
  3. 3.National Institute of Agrobiological SciencesTsukubaJapan
  4. 4.Institute of Plant Science and ResourcesOkayama UniversityKurashikiJapan
  5. 5.Graduate School of Life SciencesTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

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