One year after the deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (A formal name is Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) in March 2011, radiocesium (134Cs, 137Cs) concentrations ([Cs]) were comprehensively investigated in the wild plants of 99 species most of which were annual or summer green perennial herbs and started to grow from April 2012 at the heavily contaminated fields of paddy (three study sites) and upland (one study site) in Fukushima Prefecture. The survey was conducted three times (April, July and October) in the year. In each site, soils (soil cores of 5-cm depth) and plants (aerial shoots) were collected for determination of [Cs] on a dry weight basis, and then the transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium from soil to plant ([Cs]plant/[Cs]soil) was estimated in each species. The [Cs] values of both soils and plants largely varied. However, some species exhibited relatively high TF values (more than 0.4) (e.g., Athyrium yokoscense, Dryopteris tokyoensis, and Cyperus brevifolius), while others exhibited almost negligible values (less than 0.01) (e.g., Salix miyabeana, Humulus scandens, and Elymus tsukushiensis). In addition, judging from the 11 species grown in both paddy and upland fields, TF values were generally higher in the paddy fields. The estimation of phytoextraction efficiency of soil radiocesium by weed communities in the paddy fields suggests that the weed community is not a practical candidate for phytoremediation technique.
Arable lands Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident Phytoremediation Radiocesium Transfer factor Weed management
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
We would like to express the deepest appreciation to Iitate-mura officers and the landowners for permitting us the field survey. We are deeply grateful to Mr. Hiroshi Ohta (Fukushima Prefecture) and Mr. Hirotsuna Hoshi, Mr. Katsunori Takita, and Mr. Masataka Sasaki (Fukushima Agricultural Technology Center) for introducing us to Iitate-mura and giving us useful local information. We thank to Dr. Tetsuro Mimura (Kobe University) and to Dr. Mutsumi Yamagami (Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori, Japan) for their useful information and kind advices about the preparation of plant and soil samples. This study was supported by the Grant for “Strategies for the Efficient Operation of the Okayama University”, 2012–2013.
Chino M, Nakayama H, Nagai H, Terada H, Katata G, Yamazawa H (2011) Preliminary estimation of release amounts of 131I and 137Cs accidentally discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the atmosphere. J Nucl Sci Technol 48:1129–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Endo S, Kajimoto T, Shizuma K (2013) Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients. J Environ Radioact 116:59–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Haston E, Richardson JE, Stevens PF, Chase MW, Harris DJ (2009) The linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (LAPG) III: a linear sequence of the families in APG III. Bot J Linn Soc 161:128–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kanter U, Hauser A, Michalke B, Dräxl S, Schäffner AR (2010) Caesium and strontium accumulation in shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana: genetic and physiological aspects. J Exp Bot 61:3995–4009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kato H, Onda Y, Teramage M (2012) Depth distribution of 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I in soil profile after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. J Environ Radioact 111:59–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kobayashi D, Nozomi N, Hisamatsu S, Yamagami M (2010) AtKUP/HAK/KT9, a K+ transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana, mediates Cs+ uptake in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:203–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Lasat MM, Fuhrmann M, Ebbs SD, Cornish JE, Kochian LV (1998) Phytoremediation of a radiocesium-contaminated soil: evaluation of cesium-137 bioaccumulation in the shoots of three plant species. J Environ Qual 27:165–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mertens J, Vervaeke P, Meers E, Tack FMG (2006) Seasonal changes of metals in willow (Salix sp.) stands for phytoremediation on dredged sediment. Environ Sci Technol 40:1962–1968CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Nishizono H, Suzuki S, Ishii F (1987) Accumulation of heavy metals in the metal-tolerant fern, Athyrium yokoscense, growing on various environments. Plant Soil 102:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qi Z, Hampton CR, Shin R, Barkla BJ, White PJ, Schachtman DP (2008) The high affinity K+ transporter AtHAK5 plays a physiological role in planta at very low K+ concentrations and provides a caesium uptake pathway in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 59:595–607CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Smith AR, Pryer KM, Schuettpelz E, Korall P, Schneider H, Wolf PG (2006) A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55:705–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van TK, Kang Y, Fukui T, Sakurai K, Iwasaki K, Aikawa Y, Phuong NM (2006) Arsenic and heavy metal acccumulation by Athyrium yokoscense from contaminated soils. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 52:701–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vandenhove H, Thirty Y, Gommers A, Goor F, Jossart JM, Holm E, Gäfvert T, Roed J, Grebenkov A, Timofeyev S (2001) Short rotation coppice for revaluation of contaminated land. J Environ Radioact 56:157–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Yonekura K, Murata J (2012) An enumeration of the vascular plants of Japan: a list of the Latin and Japanese names of the vascular plants indigenous and naturalized in Japan arranged in the order of phylogeny-based system. Hokuryukan, TokyoGoogle Scholar
Zhu YG, Smolders E (2000) Plant uptake of radiocaesium: a review of mechanisms, regulation and application. J Exp Bot 51:1635–1645CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar