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Chloroplasts move towards the nearest anticlinal walls under dark condition

Abstract

Chloroplasts change their intracellular positions in response to their light environment. Under darkness, chloroplasts assume special positions that are different from those under light conditions. Here, we analyzed chloroplast dark positioning using Adiantum capillus-veneris gametophyte cells. When chloroplasts were transferred into darkness, during the first 1–5 h, they moved towards the anticlinal cell walls bordering the adjacent cells rather rapidly. Then, they slowed down and accumulated at the anticlinal walls gradually over the following 24–36 h. The chloroplast movements could be roughly classified into two different categories: initial rapid straight movement and later, slow staggering movement. When the chloroplast accumulation response was induced in dark-adapted cells by partial cell irradiation with a microbeam targeted to the center of the cells, chloroplasts moved towards the beam spot from the anticlinal walls. However, when the microbeam was switched off, they moved to the nearest anticlinal walls and not to their original positions if they were not the closest, indicating that they know the direction of the nearest anticlinal wall and do not have particular areas that they migrate to during dark positioning.

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Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT 13139203 and 17084006 to M.W.) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS 13304061, 16107002 and 20227001 to M.W.).

Author information

Correspondence to Masamitsu Wada.

Electronic supplementary material

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Supplemental movie M2. This time-lapse movie shows chloroplast accumulation movement induced by blue microbeam irradiations and dark positioning from which the data of Fig. 5 were obtained. Images were acquired at 5-min intervals. (MOV 2817 kb)

Supplemental movie M1. This time-lapse movie shows chloroplast dark positioning from which the data of Figs. 3 and 4 were obtained. Images were acquired at 5-min intervals. (MOV 6158 kb)

Supplemental movie M2. This time-lapse movie shows chloroplast accumulation movement induced by blue microbeam irradiations and dark positioning from which the data of Fig. 5 were obtained. Images were acquired at 5-min intervals. (MOV 2817 kb)

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Tsuboi, H., Wada, M. Chloroplasts move towards the nearest anticlinal walls under dark condition. J Plant Res 125, 301–310 (2012) doi:10.1007/s10265-011-0433-y

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Keywords

  • Adiantum capillus-veneris
  • Blue light
  • Chloroplast movement
  • Dark position
  • Microbeam