Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 124, Issue 2, pp 299–304 | Cite as

The molecular basis of incomplete dominance at the A locus of CHS-D in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea

  • Yasuyo Johzuka-Hisatomi
  • Hiroshi Noguchi
  • Shigeru Iida
Short Communication


The mutable a flaked (a f ) allele at the A locus of the common morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) confers incomplete dominance in flower pigmentation and is caused by insertion of the DNA transposon Tip100 into CHS-D, which encodes chalcone synthase and is required for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Levels of CHS-D transcripts, CHS-D protein, and anthocyanin pigment in heterozygous flowers were about half that in homozygous flowers, indicating that dosage-dependent expression of CHS-D is the primary cause of the observed incomplete dominance. This contrasts with the Nivea locus in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) in which incomplete dominance is caused by semi-dominant CHS alleles.


Anthocyanin pigmentation Chalcone synthase gene Dosage-dependent gene expression Flower variegation Incomplete dominance Ipomoea purpurea 



We thank Sharman D. O’Neill for providing the I. nil Actin cDNA, Kazuo Tsugane for helping detect western blot signals, and Atsushi Hoshino and Norio Saito for discussion. This work was supported in part by the Global COE Program and by grants from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture of Japan (No. 17207002 to S.I. and No. 18-40089 to Y. J.-H.). Y. Johzuka-Hisatomi was a recipient of an RPD fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

Supplementary material

10265_2010_369_MOESM1_ESM.tif (8.1 mb)
Supplementary Fig. 1. Magnified view of a heterozygous A rev /a f flower in the segregant of the germinal revertant GR37-4 shown in Fig. 1a. The white arrowheads point to deeply colored sectors on the lightly colored background (TIFF 8266 kb)
10265_2010_369_MOESM2_ESM.tif (20.2 mb)
Supplementary Fig. 2. Northern blot analysis of CHS-D and DFR-B transcripts (a) and their temporal expression (b) in flower buds of an I. purpurea germinal revertant (A rev /A rev ). Total RNA was extracted from the limbs of the buds at different stages before flower opening (BFO) as indicated and subjected to northern blot hybridization with appropriate probes. The constitutively expressed Actin transcript was used as an internal control, and the expression at each stage is represented by the ratio between 52 h BFO and the indicated time after normalizing to the intensity of the internal control. Similar mRNA accumulation was observed for both genes between 52 h and 36 h BFO, even though flower buds became considerably larger at 36 h BFO compared to 52 h BFO. As with I. nil (Morita et al. 2006), these genes tend to be more highly expressed near dawn (at 52 h BFO) than before sunset (36 h BFO) in the earlier stage because they are partially regulated by the circadian clock (TIFF 20650 kb)
10265_2010_369_MOESM3_ESM.tif (9.1 mb)
Supplementary Fig. 3. Western blot analysis of CHS-D protein (a) and SDS polyacrylamide gel (b) of flower buds of I. purpurea F2 segregants of a cross between FR35 and WP3. The gel was stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue.Total protein was extracted from the limbs of flower buds at 12 h BFO(TIFF 9297 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuyo Johzuka-Hisatomi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hiroshi Noguchi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shigeru Iida
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Graduate School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of ShizuokaShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.Global Center of Excellence ProgramUniversity of ShizuokaShizuokaJapan
  3. 3.National Institute for Basic BiologyOkazakiJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental SciencesUniversity of ShizuokaShizuokaJapan

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