Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 124, Issue 1, pp 1–9

Ploidy distribution and DNA content variations of Lonicera caerulea (Caprifoliaceae) in Japan

Regular Paper


Ploidy level and geographical distribution were investigated in Japanese Lonicera caerulea L. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the presence of DNA diploid and DNA tetraploid plants in Japan. Chromosome observation confirmed that diploid and tetraploid plants showed 2n = 2x = 18 and 2n = 4x = 36, respectively. The DNA diploid populations were found only in lowland mires, Betsukai, Bekanbeushi, Kushiro and Kiritappu located in eastern Hokkaido. On the other hand, DNA tetraploid populations were distributed in a wide area of Hokkaido, and mainland of Japan. The habitats of DNA tetraploid plants were lowland to alpine region. The DNA content measurement with flow cytometry revealed significant differences in the relative DNA contents among DNA tetraploid populations. The relative DNA content within DNA tetraploid populations varied 1.157-fold at maximum, and might correlate with altitude indicating that DNA contents were smaller as altitude increases. The wide area of distribution in various environments of DNA tetraploid plants suggested the adaptability of the tetraploid plants. Although diploid and tetraploid populations were found, no triploid was detected, indicating crossing difficulty between diploid and tetraploid as confirmed by crossing experiment.


Chromosome number DNA ploidy level Flow cytometry Genome size variation Geographical distribution Lonicera caerulea 


  1. Ammal EKJ, Saunders B (1952) Chromosome numbers in species of Lonicera. Kew Bull 7:539–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anetai M, Ogawa H, Hayashi T, Aoyagi M, Chida M, Muraki M, Yasuda C, Yabunaka T, Akino S, Yano S (1996) Studies on wild plants traditionally used by the Ainu people (PartI): contents of vitamins A, C and E in edible plants. Rep Hokkaido Inst Public Health 46:34–39 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  3. Ceccarelli M, Falistocco E, Cionini PG (1992) Variation of genome size and organization within hexaploid Festuca arundinacea. Theor Appl Genet 83:273–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chaovanalikit A, Thompson MM, Wrolstad RE (2004) Characterization and quantification of anthocyanins and polyphenolics in blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.). J Agric Food Chem 52:848–852CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Creber HMC, Davies MS, Francis D, Walker HD (1994) Variation in DNA C value in natural populations of Dactylis glomerata L. New Phytol 128:555–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Evans GM, Durrant A, Rees H (1966) Associated nuclear changes in the induction of flax genotrophs. Nature 212:697–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Greilhuber J, Doležel J, Lysák MA, Bennett MD (2005) The origin, evolution and proposed stabilization of terms ‘Genome size’ and ‘C-value’ to describe nuclear DNA contents. Ann Bot 95:255–260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Haig D, Westoby M (1991) Genomic imprinting in endosperm: its effect on seed development in crosses between species, and between different ploidies of the same species, and its implications for the evolution of apomixes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 333:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hara H (1983) Section 3. Caeruleae. In: Ginkgoana, Contributions to the flora of Asia and the pacific region No. 5, a revision of Caprifoliaceae of Japan with reference to allied plants in other districts and the Adoxaceae. Academia Scientific Book Inc., Tokyo, pp 79–84Google Scholar
  10. Knight CA, Molinari NA, Petrov DA (2005) The large genome constraint hypothesis: evolution, ecology and phenotype. Ann Bot 95:177–190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kubátová B, Trávníček P, Bastlová D, Čurn V, Jarolímová V, Suda J (2008) DNA ploidy-level variation in native and invasive populations of Lythrum salicaria at a large geographical scale. J Biogeogr 35:167–176Google Scholar
  12. Leitch IJ, Bennett MD (2004) Genome downsizing in polyploid plants. Biol J Linn Soc 82:651–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lewis WH (1980) Polyploidy in species populations. In: Lewis WH (ed) Polyploidy: biological relevance. Plenum Press, New York, pp 103–147Google Scholar
  14. Mishiba K, Ando T, Mii M, Watanabe H, Kokubun H, Hashimoto G, Marchesi E (2000) Nuclear DNA content as an index character discriminating taxa in the genus Petunia sensu Jussieu (Solanaceae). Ann Bot 85:665–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Murray BG (2005) When does intraspecific C-value variation become taxonomically significant? Ann Bot 95:119–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Naugžemys D, Žilinskaitė S, Denkovskij J, Patamsytė J, Literskis J, Žvingila D (2007) RAPD based study of genetic variation and relationships among Lonicera germplasm accessions. Biologija 53:34–39Google Scholar
  17. Plekhanova MN (2000) Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.)—a new commercial berry crop for temperate climate: genetic resources and breeding. Acta Hortic 538:159–164Google Scholar
  18. Plekhanova MN, Solovyeva LV, Mochalova OV (1992) Chromosome numbers and distribution area of Lonicera subsect. Caeruleae (Caprifoliaceae). Botanicheskii Zhurnal 77:1–11 (in Russian with English summary)Google Scholar
  19. Ramsey J, Schemske DW (1998) Pathways, mechanisms, and rates of polyploid formation in flowering plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 29:467–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ramsey J, Schemske DW (2002) Neopolyploidy in flowering plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:589–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Reeves G, Francis D, Davies MS, Rogers HJ, Hodkinson TR (1998) Genome size is negatively correlated with altitude in natural populations of Dactylis glomerata. Ann Bot 82(Supplement A):99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sahara K, Yoshido A, Kawamura N, Ohnuma A, Abe H, Mita K, Oshiki T, Shimada T, Asano S, Bando H, Yasukochi Y (2003) W-derived BAC probes as a new tool for identification of the W chromosome and its aberrations in Bombyx mori. Chromosoma 112:48–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Sato T (1985) Hokkaido ni okeru Kurominouguisukagura·Keyonomi ni tuite (Lonicera caerulea var. emphyllocalyx and L. caerulea var. edulis in Hokkaido.). Wild Life Rep 2:47–51 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  24. Shibata F, Hizume M (2002) The identification and analysis of the sequences that allow the detection of Allium cepa chromosomes by GISH in the allodiploid A. wakegi. Chromosoma 111:184–191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Šmarda P, Bureš P (2006) Intraspecific DNA content variability in Festuca pallens on different geographical scales and ploidy levels. Ann Bot 98:665–678CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Solovyeva LV, Plehanova MN (2003) Investigation of karyotype of the blue honeysuckle (Lonicera subsect. caeruleae, Caprifoliaceae). Cytol Genet 37:30–38Google Scholar
  27. Suda J, Krahulcová A, Trávníček P, Krahulec F (2006) Ploidy level versus DNA ploidy level: an appeal for consistent terminology. Taxon 55:447–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Suda J, Weiss-Schneeweiss H, Tribsch A, Schneeweiss GM, Trávníček P, Schönswetter P (2007) Complex distribution patterns of di-, tetra-, and hexaploid cytotypes in the European high mountain plant Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae). Am J Bot 94:1391–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sugiyama S, Yamada T (2003) Variation in nuclear DNA content in natural populations of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan. Grassland Sci 49:129–133Google Scholar
  30. Terahara N, Sakanashi T, Tsukui A (1993) Anthocyanins from the berries of Haskaap, Lonicera caerulea L. J Home Econ Jpn 44:197–201Google Scholar
  31. Thompson MM, Chaovanalikit A (2003) Preliminary observations on adaptation and nutraceutical values of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea) in Oregon, USA. Acta Hortic 626:65–72Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomomi Miyashita
    • 1
  • Hajime Araki
    • 1
  • Yoichiro Hoshino
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Biosphere Science, Graduate School of Environmental ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Field Science Center for Northern BiosphereHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations