Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 122, Issue 4, pp 377–387 | Cite as

Haplotype richness in refugial areas: phylogeographical structure of Saxifraga callosa

  • F. Grassi
  • L. Minuto
  • G. Casazza
  • M. Labra
  • F. Sala
Regular Paper

Abstract

This paper illustrates the phylogeographical structure of Saxifraga callosa in order to describe its genetic richness in refugial areas and to reconstruct its glacial history. S. callosa is a species spread throughout south-east France and Italy with a high distribution in the Maritime Alps. Four chloroplast microsatellite and AFLP markers were analyzed in populations of S. callosa. The size variants of all tested loci amount to 11 different haplotypes. Intrapopulational haplotype variation was found in two of the populations analyzed: on the Mt. Toraggio in the Maritime Alps, and in the Apuan Alps. On the other hand, no intrapopulational variation was found in 25 populations, most of which were sampled from isolated areas. Analysis of the haplotype distribution showed that population subdivision across all populations was high (GST = 0.899). Moreover, its genetic structure was studied using AMOVA and STRUCTURE analysis. The study legitimated inferred conclusions about the phylogeographical structure of the species and identified centers of diversity. Considerations concerning genetic structure and divergence among three major clades (Maritime Alps, Apuan Alps and Apennines), the patchy distribution of haplotypes, and the high number of private haplotypes support the proposal that S. callosa survived in some refugia within the Italian Peninsula refugium, and that mainly northern populations of refugia were involved in postglacial recolonization.

Keywords

Apuan Alps Chloroplast Glacial refugia Maritime Alps Quaternary Refugia within refugia 

References

  1. Ansell SW, Grundmann M, Russell SJ, Schneider H, Vogel JC (2008) Genetic discontinuity, breeding-system change and population history of Arabis alpina in the Italian Peninsula and adjacent Alps. Mol Ecol 17:2245–2257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bialozyt R, Ziegenhagen B, Petit RJ (2006) Contrasting effects of long distance seed dispersal on genetic diversity during range expansion. J Evol Biol 19:12–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruschi P, Vendramine GG, Bussotti F, Grossoni P (2003) Morphological and molecular diversity among Italian populations of Quercus petraea (Fagaceae). Ann Bot 91:707–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Canestrelli D, Cimmauta R, Nascetti G (2007) Phylogeography and historical demography of the Italian treefrog, Hyla intermedia, reveals multiple refugia, population expansions and secondary contacts within peninsular Italy. Mol Ecol 16:4808–4821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Casazza G, Barberis G, Minuto L (2005) Ecological characteristics and rarity of endemic plants from Italian Maritime Alps. Biol Cons 123:361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Casazza G, Zappa E, Mariotti MG, Médail F, Minuto L (2008) Ecological and historical factors affecting distribution pattern and richness of endemic plant species: the case of Maritime and Ligurian Alps hotspot. Div Distr 14:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Castroviejo S (1997) Flora iberica. In: Garmedia And Navarro (eds) Plantas vasculares de la Peninsula Ibericas e Islas Baleares. Real Jard Bot CSIC, Madrid Google Scholar
  8. Clement M, Posada D, Crandall K (2000) TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies. Mol Ecol 9:1657–1660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Comes HP, Kadereit JW (1998) The effect of Quaternary climatic changes on plant distribution and evolution. Trends Plant Sci 3:432–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Comes HP, Kadereit JW (2003) Spatial and temporal patterns in the evolution of the flora of the European Alpine System. Taxon 52:451–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Conti E, Soltis DE, Hardig TM, Schneider J (1999) Phylogenetic relationships of the Silver Saxifrages (Saxifraga, sect Ligulatae Haworth): implications for the evolution of substrate specificity, life histories, and biogeography. Mol Phylogen Evol 13:536–555Google Scholar
  12. Diadema K, Bretagnolle F, Affre L, Yuan Y, Médail F (2005) Geographic structure of molecular variation of Gentiana ligustica (Gentianaceae) in the Maritime and Ligurian regional hotspot, inferred from ITS sequences. Taxon 54:887–894Google Scholar
  13. Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM (1992) Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics 131:479–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Florineth D, Schluchter C (2000) Alpine evidence for atmospheric circulation patterns in Europe during the last glacial maximum. Quatern Res 14:295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garnier S, Alibert P, Audiot B, Prieur B, Rasplus JY (2004) Isolation by distance and sharp discontinuities in gene frequencies: implications for the phylogeography of an alpine insect species Carabus solieri. Mol Ecol 13:1883–1897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gómez A, Lunt DH (2006) Refugia with refugia: phylogeographic concordance in the Iberian Peninsula. In: Weiss S, Ferrand N (eds) Phylogeography in Southern European refugia: evolutionary perspectives on the origins and conservation of European biodiversity. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 155–188Google Scholar
  17. Grassi F, Imazio S, Gomarasca S, Citterio S, Aina R, Sgorbati S, Sala F, Patrignani G, Labra M (2004) Population structure and genetic variation within Valeriana wallrothii Kreyer in relation to different ecological locations. Plant Sci 6:1437–1441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grassi F, Labra M, Minuto L, Casazza G, Sala F (2006) Natural hybridization in Saxifraga callosa Sm. Plant Biol 8:243–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grassi F, De Mattia F, Zecca G, Sala F, Labra M (2008) Historical isolation and range expansion of wild grape. Biol J Lin Soc 95:611–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hampe A, Petit RJ (2005) Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters. Ecol Lett 8:461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hewitt GM (2000) The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature 405:907–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holderegger R, Stehlik I, Abbott RJ (2002) Molecular analysis of the Pleistocene history of Saxifraga oppositifolia in the Alps. Mol Ecol 11:1409–1418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huertz M, Carnevale S, Fineschi S, Sebastiani F, Hausman JF, Paule L, Vendramin GG (2006) Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of European ashes, Fraxinus sp. (Oleaceae): roles of hybridization and life history traits. Mol Ecol 15:2131–2140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kropf M, Kadereit JW, Comes PH (2002) Late Quaternary distributional stasis in the submediterranean mountain plant Anthyllis montana L. (Fabaceae) inferred from ITS sequences and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Mol Ecol 11:447–463Google Scholar
  25. Labra M, Grassi F, Sgorbati S, Ferrari C (2006) Distribution of genetic variability in southern populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Alps to the Apennines. Flora 6:468–476Google Scholar
  26. Magri D, Fineschi S, Bellarosa R, Buonamici A, Sebastiani F, Schirone B, Simeone MC, Vendramin GG (2006) A new scenario for the Quaternary history of European beech populations: palaeobotanical evidence and genetic consequence. New Phyt 171:199–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Martini E (1983) Note sulla flora e vegetazione dei monti Toraggio e Pietravecchia (Alpi Liguri meridionali). Webbia 37:95–110Google Scholar
  28. Médail F, Verlaque R (1997) Ecological characteristics and rarity of endemic plants from southeast France and Corsica: implications for biodiversity conservation. Biol Conserv 80:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Minuto L, Grassi F, Casazza G (2006) Ecogeographic and genetic evaluation of endemic species in the Maritime Alps: the case of Moehringia lebrunii and M. sedoides (Caryophyllaceae). Plant Biosystems 140:146–155Google Scholar
  30. Moritz C (1994) Defining evolutionarily significant units for conservation: 100th issue essays. Trends Ecol Evol 9:373–375Google Scholar
  31. Nei M (1978) Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89:583–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Nei M (1987) Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Petit RJ, Aguinagalde I, de Beaulieu JL, Bittkau C, Brewer S, Cheddadi R, Ennos R, Fineschi S, Grivet D, Lascoux M, Mohanty A, Muller-Starck GM, Demesure-Musch B, Palme A, Martin JP, Rendell S, Vendramin GG (2003) Glacial refugia: hotspots but not melting pots of genetic diversity. Science 300:1563–1565Google Scholar
  34. Pignatti S (1982) Flora d’Italia. Edagricole, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  35. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Schönswetter P, Tribsch A (2005) Vicariance and dispersal in the alpine perennial Bupleurum stellatum L. (Apiaceae). Taxon 54:725–732Google Scholar
  37. Schönswetter P, Tribsch A, Barfuß M, Niklfeld H (2002) Several Pleistocene refugia detected in the high alpine plant Phyteuma globulariifolium. Sternb & Hoppe (Campanulaceae) in the European Alps. Mol Ecol 11:2637–2647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schönswetter P, Tribsch A, Stehlik I, Niklfeld H (2004) Glacial history of high alpine Ranunculus glacialis (Ranunculaceae) in the European Alps in a comparative phylogeographical context. Biol J Lin Soc 81:183–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schönswetter P, Stehlik I, Holderegger R, Tribsch A (2005) Molecular evidence for glacial refugia of mountain plants in the European Alps. Mol Ecol 14:3547–3555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shannon CE, Weaver W (1949) The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  41. Spagnolo M, Pazzaglia F (2005) Testing the geological influences on the evolution of river profiles: a case from the Northern Apennines (Italy). Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria 28:103–113Google Scholar
  42. Stehlik I, Blattner FR, Holderegger R, Bachmann K (2002) Multiple glacial nunatak survival of the high alpine Eritrichium nanum (L) Gaudin within the European Alps. Mol Ecol 11:2027–2036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Svendsen JI, Alexanderson H, Astakhov VI (2004) Late Quaternary ice sheet history of northern Eurasia. Quat Science Rev 23:1229–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Taberlet P, Fumagalli L, Wust-Saucy AG, Cosson JF (1998) Comparative phylogeography and postglacial colonization routes in Europe. Mol Ecol 7:453–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1993) Flora Europaea, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  46. Vargas P (2003) Molecular evidence for multiple diversification patterns of alpine plants in Mediterranean Europe. Taxon 52:463–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vettori C, Vendremin GG, Anzidei M, Pastorelli R, Paffetti D, Giannini R (2004) Geographic distribution of chloroplast variation in the Italian populations of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Theor Appl Genet 109:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vos P, Hogers R, Bleeker M, Reijans M, van de Lee T, Hornes M, Friiters A, Pot J, Peleman J, Kuiper M, Zabeau M (1995) AFLP: a new concept for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res 23:4407–4414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vucetich JA, Waite TA (2003) Spatial patterns of demography and genetic processes across the species’ range: null hypotheses for landscape conservation genetics. Cons Genet 4:639–645Google Scholar
  50. Webb DA, Gornall RJ (1989) Saxifrages of Europe. Christopher Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhang LB, Comes HP, Kaderiet JW (2004) The temporal course of quaternary diversification in the European high mountain endemic Primula sect. Auricula (Primulaceae). Int J Plant Scie 165:191–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Grassi
    • 1
  • L. Minuto
    • 2
  • G. Casazza
    • 2
  • M. Labra
    • 3
  • F. Sala
    • 1
  1. 1.Botanical Garden, Department of BiologyUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  2. 2.DIP.TE.RISUniversity of GenovaGenoaItaly
  3. 3.Department of BiosciencesUniversity of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations